Also known as Indus Valley Civilization, the Ancient India was found around 3000 BCE, however, some evidences suggest there were well-established trade relations between Ancient India and Mesopotamia dating back to 3200 BCE as well.
Flourished along the Indus River, ancient India, or the Indus Valley Civilisation, shines through the pages of history with the evidences of the existence of the two ancient cities, “Harappa” and “Mohenjo-Daro”. Both these cities were the part of Indus Valley Civilization remains of which have been found on Harappa sites through excavation. Indus Valley Civilization was actually the formation ground of Ancient India.
The discovery of Ancient India remained a mystery until 1920’s CE, when the archaeologist unearthed seals containing symbols and scripts in Mohenjo-Daro, now located in Pakistan. The historians have found more than thousands of artefacts that have been further divided in 500-600 different symbols made from using the seals of soft clay at this location.
These written languages are known as Indus Scripts and they can provide key information and details about one of the world’s oldest civilisations. However, it is really unfortunate that in spite of many attempts, the historians have not been able to decode, or translate Indus Scripts. Consequently, we have clearly missed on significant knowledge on Ancient India that these scripts can provide.
Still, on the basis of different facts and evidences gathered through excavations for Indus Valley Civilization, the archaeologists have come to the conclusion that Ancient India was found around 3000 BCE. However, on the basis of some of the noticeable evidences of trade relation between Harappa and the other important civilisation of that time known as ‘Mesopotamia’, some of the historians are of the opinion that Ancient India was found much before that.
Located in West Asia, Mesopotamia is another important historical region where the archaeologists have found Stamps and materials with Indus Scripts of that time. On the basis of all these available evidences we come to the conclusion that Ancient India was founded somewhere between 3200 BCE and 3000 BCE.
Tale of the two amazing cities in Ancient India
The archaeologists have been utterly successful in bringing to the light several facts about Ancient India through a range of evidences gathered from the excavation sites of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro, the two amazing cities of Ancient India settled by Indus Valley Civilization.
These cities have been well planned and their houses and other buildings were made of mud bricks. Interestingly, these bricks have been almost similar to the oven-baked bricks being used even today.
Another striking similarity between these two ancient cities is that most of the urban homes of that time also had well-established water drainage systems, just like we have in our cities today. Moreover, all these cities have been well planned out and big as well. According to the historians, by and large all the major cities of that time had bustling population. It is estimated that each of these cities had over 80,000 people living in them. Also there were complete water drainage systems along the main roads of that time. The cities in ancient India were so well planned that there were bifurcations along smaller roads leading to square grid. It is equally astonishing to know that some of the houses of that time even had multiple stories.
However, not many people lived in urban settlements at that time. Most of the people in Ancient India used to live in rural areas or, the villages for farming. The major crops cultivated by them included wheat, cotton and sesame seeds, besides fruits and vegetables like melons and peas. Already the archaeologists have confirmed the presence of large scale granary in Indus Valley civilisation. The Ancient India people used to rear animals as well with having designated food and grain storage areas in their homes. In this way Ancient India boasts of well planned cities as well as the villages with bustling population.
Mysteries surrounding Ancient India
It is truly surprising to know that such a fully developed civilization existed ages ago. Unlike Mesopotamians, or Egyptians civilisation of that time, Ancient India, however, did not have many large structures. Still, the discovery of a public pool in Indus Valley Civilization has left the archaeologists amazed. Known as “Great Bath”, it’s a 40 feet long, 10 feet deep and 20 feet wide pool, used for public bathing purposes.
The Indus Valley Civilization which gives us a convenient glimpse into Ancient India will remain mysterious for us unless we are able to decode or, translate their scripts. These scripts are erected over different materials found in excavations at the sites of Indus Valley Civilization. It is equally surprising that some of the Indus Script symbols draw parallel to the images found in the Hinduism. The historians have also found an image of a person sitting in Yoga position, similar to the lotus position of Yoga practiced even today for meditation and breathing exercise in Hinduism religion of India.
Another mystery connected to Ancient India is how suddenly such a developed civilization started to decline leading to its unfortunate end. As per the historians, there were a series of earthquakes responsible for their destructions. According to their research, high intensity earthquakes rattled these cities and the rivers also suddenly changed their ways as part of the devastating impacts of these earthquakes.
Other historians have attributed sudden change in the climate of this region that may have forced Ancient India people to leave these locations. While at the same time, some archaeologists believe that the population living in this civilisation may have been forced to leave these cities by the invaders. Evidences leading to this conclusion have been found at these locations. Possibly invading armies of some other region may have attacked them.
There are ample proofs of new people moving into these cities after the earlier population left from there. The only land route even present today is Khyber Pass which connects this location to the rest of the world and so the historians believe that the invading armies may have entered this region through this route. However, we cannot completely rule out a possibility of the invaders taking the sea route and penetrated into this location. Ancient India is considered to be the biggest of all the early civilisations founded, or existed around 3200 BCE, or 3000 BCE; however, we can’t be able to finally solve all the mysteries surrounding it unless we are able to decode the scripts of that time.