Author: Shailendra Rai

Self Rule Movement in India 1937

In 1937, provincial elections were held and the Congress came into power in eight of the eleven provinces. This was a mark of the support for complete self-rule by the Indian people. The self-rule was demanded by the top leaders of the Indian National Congress and other political parties. Many agitations were done to gain the freedom and to establish self-rule. Tension also grew in the world as Germany had annexed a part of Poland in the leadership of Adolf Hitler. There was a state of confusion and the violent insurgencies and revolts were being observed everywhere in India during that time. The Government of India Act 1935 To weaken the control of the British over the Indian population several efforts and movements had been initiated. The British imposed the Government of India Act 1935 which was not relevant. It was a long and complex Act. This Act had 321 sections and 10 schedules. The growing demand for the transfer of power and the feeling of nationality in Indians compelled the British to amend the whole system of governance to ensure their interests. Through this Act the British had tried to keep all the powers instead of transferring them into the Indian hands. Actually the outline of the Act was a hindrance in the development process. The legislative assembly had no power to amend any clause of the Act....

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British Reforms 1919

After the transfer of power from the East India Company, the British had followed the policy of cooperation. To make it in function there were three Acts had been also passed in 1861, 1862, and 1909 but these policies hadn’t been proved successful. Therefore the British rulers had changed their opinion with reference to India. It was experienced that it was not enough to take cooperation of Indians but also it was needed that the formation of a responsible government is essential. Therefore, in 1919 another Act was passed and the theory of partial responsibility was adopted. The theory of partial responsibility was given by the Indian Secretary General Montagu and the Governor General Chelmsford. Hence, it is defined as “The Montagu–Chelmsford Reforms” or “Mont-Ford Reform” or the “Government of India Act, 1919”. Montagu and Lord Chelmsford arranged meeting with Indian nationalist leaders and formed a committee in which an Indian Bhupendra Nath Basu was also a member. The committee had formatted a document that was published in July 1918 that was called the Government of India Act, 1919. Preface of the Government of India Act, 1919 In the preface of the Government of India Act following points were included:- India is an integral part of the British Empire. A responsible Government is established in India which is only possible by the gradual development. The participation of Indians will...

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Other Revolutionary Movements for the Indian Independence

Before 20th Century some incidents of the armed rebellion against the British rulers were came into notice. The chronicles had reflected some events during the partition of Bengal in 1905. Since the revolutionary movements were the part of Indian Freedom struggle that were suppressed by the British then and there. The revolutionary groups that were in favour of armed-violence to achieve the Independence come into this class. They were mainly centralized in Bengal, Maharashtra, Bihar, the United Provinces and Punjab. Many more rebellion groups were scattered all across Indian sub-continent. There were numerous violent clashes against the British were seen in all the parts of India but some of them had left their deep impact on the freedom struggle. Revolutionary Movements of Indian Independence The detail of major events that helped the Indian Independence movement is given below: Anushilan Samiti Anushilan Samiti was a secret, revolutionary, armed, and anti-British party formed in Bengal. Its main objective was to practice (Anushilan) the path shown by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. The literal meaning of Anushilan is contemplation, to practice reading, or deep study of the epics and religious thoughts. The Anushilan Samiti was formed in 1902. It had been divided into two parts- Dhaka Anushilan Samiti and the Yugantar. This Samiti was active in the all parts of Bengal at the start of the 20th century. Calcutta and Dhaka were its two...

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Lahore Resolution 1940

Lahore resolution was proposed by the Indian Muslim League in 1940 Lahore session. It was purely an officially political motion. The Lahore Resolution had been passed by the Muslim League in the three days session at Lahore from 22nd to 24th March, 1940. Through this proposal the Muslim League demanded Independent Princely States in the north-west region of India for so called Muslims. They also wanted to make it an autonomous and sovereign state. After that the resolution turned its way and Muslim League started a new demand of separate independent autonomous state named Pakistan for the Indian Muslims. However the name Pakistan was proposed earlier by Choudhary Rahmat Ali but till 1933 Mohammad Ali Jinnah and other Muslim leaders were firmly determined on the Hindu-Muslim unity. But under the influence of the split incentive misunderstandings by the British there was a feeling of mistrust and malice among the Muslims as well as the Hindus. That condition of sensitive political atmosphere had promoted the offer in the favour of the formation of Pakistan. In the memory of this motion “Yaum-e-Pakistan” or “Pakistan Diwas” is celebrated on 23rd March every year. Background Role of Muslim League On 23rd March, 1940 at the end of the annual meeting of the Muslim League at the Minto Park in Lahore the historical resolution was passed in which the Muslim League had demanded a...

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Second World War (1939-45) and its Impact on Indian Independence

Wars are always destructive and not good for human beings, as well as it leave a deep impact on the future generations. The Second World War or the Last Global War was one of these wars that affected the whole world deeply. The Two cities of Japan were ruined by the dropping of nuclear bombs. Its impact was seen all over the world. Although its repercussions on south Asia were terrible yet a mix impact had been observed in India. The Second World War was started on 1st September, 1939 when Germany invaded Poland. Great Britain and other powers called Allied Forces declared a war against Germany, Japan, and Italy which were known as Axis Powers. Many other countries were gradually involved one by one and almost all the nations were participating in the war directly or indirectly. Its impacts were also observed over India. Since Great Britain was directly involved in the war thus their control on India was not good enough. It was observed that after the end of the war Britain was in a great difficulty. The manufacturing units and production centers were largely affected. The loss of people was also a problem for them. It was not easy for the rulers to have their tight control on the rebellion groups in India. Impacts of Second World War on Indian Independence There were a lot of...

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