Author: Shailendra Rai

Arrival of Mahatma Gandhi in India

Mohan Das Karam Chandra Gandhi also known as Mahatma Gandhi or Bapu was born on 2nd October, 1869 in Porbander, Gujarat. He had changed the mode of Indian Freedom Struggle by his ideology and political will. His concept of Independence was based on his non-violence theory that inspired the movement for civil rights and freedom and made India free from the British rule. He had started his studies from Porbander middle school and completed matriculation from Rajkot High School. He was an average student and anyhow cleared his graduation from Shyamal Das College, Bhavnagar. Then he went to England to study law on 4th September, 1888. He lived a simple life there, as he had promised his mother to live there as a teetotaler vegetarian. Gandhiji obtained his law degree from the Inner Temple (one of the four law colleges in London) and return back to India on the call of Wales Bar Association but couldn’t get success in Mumbai court. In 1893, Gandhi went South Africa on a proposal by Dada Abdulla to work for a cousin who had shipping business there. This was the turning point of his life. He faced discrimination there due the apartheid policy was prevailing in South Africa on that time. He was compelled to leave the train once, hotel owners refused to allot rooms for him, even in court he was told...

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First World War 1914-18

The First World War originated in Europe between 1914-18 and spread throughout the world. It is called the Great War or the Global War. WWI was also believed to bring an end to all other wars, hence it was known as ‘war to end all wars’. But it had not happened and the Second World War was also observed in 1939. This war started on 28th July, 1914 and lasted till 11th November 1918. Approx. one crore seventy lakh people had lost their life and about two Crores got injured. Many died due to epidemics and malnutrition. The First World War was fought between Allied Powers (France, Britain and Russia; later on the USA joined the war during 1917-18) and the Central Powers (Germany, Japan, And the Ottoman Empire, Italy). At the end of the war new boundary for Europe was determined. The power of Russia, Germany and Austria were ended and the USA became the ‘Super Power’ of the world. The First World War affected the whole world directly or indirectly. Reason of the First World War The First World War was the clash of a long tussle among the European Countries before 1914. The reasons behind the war can be classified into two groups which are mentioned below:- Long Term Reasons: – The different events and circumstances such as- feeling of nationality, militarism, communism, economic rivalry, secret and...

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First Non Co-operation Movement 1920 to 1922

Many movements and revolts have been observed during the Indian freedom struggle. Non-Cooperation Movement was one among them. The outline of the movement was drawn by the Indian National Congress under the guidelines of Mahatma Gandhi. The non-cooperation movement affected the mass people on a large scale. People from the age group of 7 years to 70 years from all sects had participated in the movement with great enthusiasm. This movement achieved its success because of the dissatisfaction and annoyance to the British Government. Every Indian dreamt for the Independence. Meaning and Objective of Non-Cooperation Movement As was its name so was its meaning i.e. not supporting the government by adapting non-violence means. The main objective of this movement was not to help the British Government in ruling the nation. It was strictly resolved that any kind of violence was not allowed in opposing the British. Gandhiji and the other top leaders of Congress sought to interrupt the British by not cooperating them to run the Government such as the total boycott of schools and colleges, offices, prizes awarded by the British, use of foreign made goods, and by using Hindi as the language of communication and to use cloths made in India. The word Swadeshi was coined during that period. Reasons behind Non Cooperation Movement When there was dissatisfaction and annoyance among all the classes and sects of...

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Sovereignty and Partition of India 1947

On 15th August, 1947 India has been divided into two parts- India and Pakistan. The division was not just and fair; so many things were either neglected or never minded due to emotions and sentiments. The ‘divide and rule policy’ of the British, revolt of Muslim league, irresponsible role and behaviour of the Congress were some of the reasons that led to the partition of India.  The story of independence and the partition of the country was full of tragedy and trauma. Historical Reason of Partition of India Many people were against this partition, many opposed it due to the partition was on religion basis, and many others wanted that it had to be divided in such a way that in future it should not become controversial. Maulana Azad and Dr. Ram Manohar Lohia never accepted the division and wanted the intact India. On the time of Independence the Indian Territory was divided into three sectors:- The areas under British control- in total control of British governor general. Indian kingdoms or princely states. The dominions of France and Portugal like Chandan Nagar, Pondicherry, and Goa etc. During the time of partition Ceylon (Sri Lanka) and Burma (Myanmar) were a part of India but the British had not annexed them in the Indian Territory. In 1947, there were 662 principalities, among them 565 were under the British control. Out of...

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Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army)

Although many freedom fighters had contributed a lot in the Indian Freedom struggle yet some outside activities from the foreign countries were also marked their deep impact on the British as well as on the Indians. Among them, the effect of Azad Hind Fauj formed initially by Rash Behari Bose and then revived by Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose was seen more disastrous to overturn the rule of British from India. The main objective of the INA was to declare a war against the British Government. History of Azad Hind Fauj During the 2nd world war 70,000 soldiers among which almost were from Punjab sent to far east by the British Government. Captain Mohan Singh was leading his unit in the Malaysian front. When Japanese force took the command over Malaysia and South East Asia then many of the Indian soldiers had been captivated. However the Japanese tried to keep better relations with them. A Japanese official Major Fijiera asked an Indian Nationalist leader Pritam Singh who was residing in Malaysia that time to form an army with the help and support of these prisoners of war and their captain Mohan Singh. In April 1942 Mohan Singh called all the top officers and had taken Bidadary resolution according to which they would form an army that would fight for the freedom of India. Hence evidences tell us that INA was...

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