Lahore resolution was proposed by the Indian Muslim League in 1940 Lahore session. It was purely an officially political motion. The Lahore Resolution had been passed by the Muslim League in the three days session at Lahore from 22nd to 24th March, 1940. Through this proposal the Muslim League demanded Independent Princely States in the north-west region of India for so called Muslims.
They also wanted to make it an autonomous and sovereign state. After that the resolution turned its way and Muslim League started a new demand of separate independent autonomous state named Pakistan for the Indian Muslims.
However the name Pakistan was proposed earlier by Choudhary Rahmat Ali but till 1933 Mohammad Ali Jinnah and other Muslim leaders were firmly determined on the Hindu-Muslim unity.
But under the influence of the split incentive misunderstandings by the British there was a feeling of mistrust and malice among the Muslims as well as the Hindus. That condition of sensitive political atmosphere had promoted the offer in the favour of the formation of Pakistan. In the memory of this motion “Yaum-e-Pakistan” or “Pakistan Diwas” is celebrated on 23rd March every year.
Role of Muslim League
On 23rd March, 1940 at the end of the annual meeting of the Muslim League at the Minto Park in Lahore the historical resolution was passed in which the Muslim League had demanded a separate nation for the Muslims living in Indian sub-continent. They started movements and agitations for the acquisition and succeeded in getting their demand passed.
General elections were held in the Indian sub-continent in 1936-37 before the process to hand over power to the public in the presence of British. Muslim League faced a bitter defeat in the elections and couldn’t proclaim that it was the solitary representative assembly of the Muslims in the Indian sub-continent. The moral of leaders and volunteers had been shattered and there was a great feeling of disappointment among them.
Role of Congress and Result of the Election
Congress won in Madras, Utter Pradesh, Central Province, Bihar and Orissa with a clear majority in the general elections held in 1936-37. On the border and Mumbai they formed coalition government by making alliance with the other regional political parties. In the Muslim majority states like Sindh and Assam the Congress got huge success.
Muslim league couldn’t achieve power in any of the 11 provinces, however in Punjab Inam Hussein’s Uninshut Party and in Bengal Maulavi Kripa Haq’s Praja Krishak Party had been able to win their seats. In such condition it seemed that the Muslim League was getting separated from the political stream.
After winning the election Congress was over enthusiastic and power addiction was prevailed among its top leadership. The initiatives taken by the Congress, feeling of fear and danger started taking birth in the hearts of Muslims. Congress had declared Hindi as mother-tongue, cow slaughter was banned, and the flag of Congress was given the identity of the National flag.
Demand of Pakistan
The Muslim League declared itself as the representative body of Muslims and argued that’s why it is deprived of the power. This was the starting point of the thinking about having a separate nation.
During the period of Second World War a conflict raised between the Congress and the British about the transfer of power and Congress had decided to remain aloof from the power. This incident brought a hope for the Muslim League. This event was the background of the Lahore session of the Muslim League that was started on 22nd March.
Four days before the Lahore session Din Party demonstrated a parade opposing the ban imposed by the British. Police had opened fire and 35 members of the Din Party were killed in the firing. There was a state of tension in Lahore and in Punjab Imam Hussein’s Unionist Party was in power which was supported by the Muslim League. There was a possibility of a violent agitation by the Din Party volunteers who carry spades all the time with them and could disturb the session.
Thus Jinnah had addressed the inaugural session and first time told that communalism was not only the problem of India but it was a problem for both countries. It was the first introduction of Pakistan to the world. He also told that the difference between Hindus and Muslims was so great and clear that their association with a single central government will not be justified.
Therefore no option was left but to divide them under two different governments. It was mentioned in the resolution that wherever the Muslims were in majority such as in the north-west and the eastern part, there must be established a separate govt. This proposal was supported by many Muslim League leaders.
In April, 1941 the Lahore Resolution was included in the Muslim League constitution and based on the resolution the Pakistan Movement was started.
Limitation of the Boundaries
On 7th August, 1946 three days conference was held in Delhi in which all the central and provincial members of the Muslim League participated. A resolution was passed to present their demand before upcoming Cabinet Mission from Britain. The document was prepared by the two executive members of Muslim League-Choudhary Riek Valsma and Hassan Isfhani.
In this document the regions which would have added in Pakistan were marked. The Muslim League wanted Bengal, Assam, Punjab, Sindh, and Baluchistan. Kashmir was not mentioned anywhere.
But the original draft was prepared by the contemporary chief minister of Punjab Sir Sikander Hayatt. His Unionist Party was merged into Muslim League and Sir Sikander Hayatt was the chairman of the Punjab Muslim League. He opposed the formula given by Jinnah that two separate states were required for the Hindus and Muslims and believed that it would be dangerous for the both in future.
But unfortunately he died in 1942 at the age of 50 years. The raising opposition against Jinnah was left then and there.
After 25 years political hotchpotch and British interference, the Muslim League was able to establish separate boundaries for the Muslims. India was divided into Pakistan in the north-west and Bangladesh in the eastern region. Later on in 1971, by the diplomacy of the Indian Prime Minister Smt. Indira Gandhi, Bangladesh was separated from Pakistan and formed its independent government.