Bhagat Singh was known to be one of the most influential revolutionary socialists. It was two of his acts of violence against the British government and his consequent execution that made him a household name. Bhagat Singh was born in the year 1907 to Kishan Singh and Vidyavati in Punjab’s Banga village. His family members were actively involved in the independence movements and it wasn’t too late when he also became a part of the freedom struggle.
Long and Short Essay on Bhagat Singh
Essay 1 (250 words)
Bhagat Singh is undoubtedly one of the most influential revolutionaries in the history of Indian Independence. He did not only take an active part in the freedom struggle but also inspired many other youths to join the same not only while he was alive but even after his death.
Bhagat Singh’s Family
Bhagat Singh was born in a Sikh Jat family in KhatkarKalan, Punjab on the 28th of September, 1907. His father Kishan Singh, grandfather Arjan Singh and uncle, Ajit Singh were actively involved in the struggle for Indian independence. His family members inspired him immensely and the feeling of patriotism was instilled in him from the very beginning. It seemed like the quality ran in his blood.
Bhagat Singh’s Early Life
Bhagat Singh met political leaders such as Lala Lajpat Rai and Ras Bihari Bose in 1916 when he was just 9 years old. Singh was greatly inspired by them. Bhagat Singh was immensely disturbed because of the Jalianwala Bagh massacre that occurred in 1919. On the day following the massacre, he went to the Jalianwala Bagh and collected some soil from the place to keep it as a souvenir. This incident strengthened his will to push the British out of the country.
His Resolve to Avenge Lala Lajpat Rai’s Murder
After the Jalianwala Bagh massacre, it was Lala Lajpat Rai’s death that moved Bhagat Singh deeply. He could not bear the cruelty of the British any longer and decided to avenge Rai’s death. His first step in this direction was to kill the British official, Saunders. Next, he threw bombs in the Central Assembly Hall during the assembly session. He was subsequently arrested for his acts and was eventually hanged on 23rd March 1931 along with Rajguru and Sukhdev.
Bhagat Singh was all of 23 when he gladly martyred for the country and became an inspiration for the youth. His heroic acts inspire the youth even today.
Essay – 2 (400 words)
Bhagat Singh is known to be one of the most influential freedom fighters. He was a part of several revolutionary activities and inspired numerous people around, especially the youth, to join the struggle for freedom.
Revolution in the Freedom Struggle
Bhagat Singh was among the youth who did not conform to the Gandhian style of fighting against the British. He believed in the Extremist ways of the Lal-Bal-Pal. Singh studied the European revolutionary movement and was drawn towards anarchism and communism. He joined hands with those who believed in bringing about the revolution by acting aggressively rather than using the method of non-violence. With his ways of working, he came to be known as an atheist, communist and socialist.
The Need for Reconstruction of Indian Society
Bhagat Singh realized that merely driving out the British would not do good to the nation. He understood and advocated the fact that overthrowing British rule must be followed by the reconstruction of the Indian political system. He was of the opinion that the power must be given to the workers.
long with B.K. Dutt, Singh articulated his opinion about the revolution in a statement in June 1929 that stated, ‘By Revolution, we mean that the present order of things, which is based on manifest injustice must change. Producers or laborers, in spite of being the most necessary element of society, are robbed by their exploiters of their labor and deprived of their elementary rights. The peasant, who grows corn for all, starves with his family; the weaver who supplies the world market with textile fabrics, has not enough to cover his own and his children’s bodies; masons, smiths, and carpenters who raise magnificent palaces, live like pariahs in the slums. The capitalists and exploiters, the parasites of society, squander millions on their whims.
Organizations He Joined
During his struggle for India’s independence, the first organization Bhagat Singh joined was the Hindustan Republican Association. This was in the year 1924. He then began working with Sohan Singh Josh and the Workers and Peasants Party and soon after felt the need of building an organization aimed at working as a revolutionary party in Punjab and worked in this direction. He inspired people to join the struggle and free the country from the clutches of British rule.
Bhagat Singh was a true revolutionary who did all he could to overthrow British rule and bring about reforms in the country. Though he died young, his ideologies remained alive and continued to drive people.
Essay – 3 (500 words)
Bhagat Singh was born in Khatkar Kalan (the place which is now a part of Pakistan), Punjab in the year 1907. His family was completely involved in India’s struggle for freedom. In fact, around the time of Bhagat Singh’s birth, his father was in imprisonment due to his involvement in political agitation. Inspired by the family atmosphere, Bhagat Singh dived into the freedom struggle at the tender age of thirteen.
Bhagat Singh’s Education
As mentioned above, Bhagat Singh’s family was deeply involved in the freedom struggle. His father supported Mahatma Gandhi and when the later called for boycotting government-aided institutions, Singh was asked to leave school. He was 13 when he left school and joined the National College at Lahore. There he studied the European revolutionary movements that inspired him immensely.
The shift in Bhagat Singh’s Ideology
While Bhagat Singh’s family supported the Gandhian ideology completely and he too had been working in accordance with it for a while, he soon became disillusioned with the same. He felt that non-violent movements wouldn’t get them anywhere and the only way to fight the British is by armed conflict. Two major incidences during his teenage contributed to the shift in his ideology. These were the Jallianwala Bagh Massacre that took place in 1919 and the killing of the unarmed Akali protesters at Nankana Sahib in the year 1921.
After the Chauri Chaura incident, Mahatma Gandhi announced the withdrawal of the Non-Cooperation Movement. Bhagat Singh did not conform to his decision and cut off from the non-violent movements led by Gandhi. He then joined the Young Revolutionary Movement and began advocating violence as a means to drive the British out. He took part in numerous such revolutionary acts and inspired several youths to join the same.
Interesting Facts about Bhagat Singh
Here are some interesting and lesser-known facts about Shaheed Bhagat Singh:
- Bhagat Singh was an avid reader and felt that to inspire the youth it was essential to writing revolutionary articles and books rather than merely distributing pamphlets and leaflets. He wrote several revolutionary articles for Kirti Kisan Party’s magazine, the “Kirti” and certain newspapers.
- His publications include Why I Am An Atheist: An Autobiographical Discourse, Ideas of a Nation and The Jail Notebook And Other Writings. His works hold relevance even today.
- He left his home when his parents forced him to get married stating if he married in slave India his bride shall only die.
- Though born in a Sikh family, he shaved his head and beard so that he could not be recognized and arrested for killing the British official, John Saunders.
- He did not offer any defense at the time of his trial.
- He was sentenced to be hanged on 24th March 1931 however he was executed on the 23rd It is said that no magistrate wanted to supervise his hanging.
Bhagat Singh was just 23 years old when he happily gave his life for the country. His death proved to be an inspiration for several Indians to join the struggle for freedom. His supporters gave him the title, Shaheed (the martyr). He was indeed a martyr in the true sense.
Essay – 4 (600 words)
Popularly referred to as Shaheed Bhagat Singh, this outstanding revolutionary was born as Bhaganwala on the 28th of September, 1907 in a Sandhu Jat family in Punjab’s Jullundur Doab district. He joined the struggle for freedom at an early age and died a martyr at a young age of 23.
Bhagat Singh – A Born Revolutionary
Bhagat Singh, known for his heroic and revolutionary acts, was born in a family that was actively involved in the struggle for Indian Independence. His father, Sardar Kishan Singh, and uncle, Sardar Ajit Singh were popular leaders of the time. They were known to support the Gandhian ideology and missed no opportunity to inspire people to come out in masses to oppose the British.
They were particularly inspired by the extremist leader, Bal Gangadhar Tilak. Talking about the same in the article, Emergence of Punjab in the freedom movement, Bhagat Singh shared, “Having seen their enthusiasm at the 1906 Congress Convention in Calcutta, Lokmaniya was pleased and in bidding them adieu, gave them the responsibility of strengthening the movement in Punjab.” On their return to Lahore, both the brothers initiated a monthly newspaper by the name, Bharat Mata with the aim to propagate their ideas to overthrow British rule.
The loyalty towards the country and the drive to free it from the clutches of the British was thus inborn in Bhagat Singh. It ran in his blood and veins.
Bhagat Singh’s Active Involvement in the Freedom Struggle
Bhagat Singh read a lot about the European nationalist movements and got inspired by the same in 1925. He founded the Naujavan Bharat Sabha the following year and later joined the Hindustan Republican Association where he came in contact with a number of prominent revolutionaries including Sukhdev and Chandrashekhar Azad. He also began contributing articles to Kirti Kisan Party’s magazine, the “Kirti”. While his parents wanted him to marry around the same time, he rejected their offer outright telling them that he wanted to dedicate his life to the freedom struggle.
Due to his active involvement in numerous revolutionary activities, he soon became a person of interest for the British police and was arrested in May 1927. A few months later he was released and got involved in writing revolutionary articles for newspapers.
The Turning Point
In the year 1928, the British government held the Simon Commission for the discussion of autonomy for the Indians. It was boycotted by several Indian political organizations as the event did not include any Indian representative. Lala Lajpat Rai protested against the same by leading a procession and marching towards the Lahore station. In an attempt to control the mob, the police used the weapon of lathi charge and brutally hit the protestors. Lala Lajpat Rai got severely injured and was hospitalized. He succumbed to his injuries a few weeks later. The incident left Bhagat Singh enraged and he planned to avenge Rai’s death. Singh killed British police officer John P. Saunders soon after. He and one of his associates later bombed the Central Legislative Assembly in Delhi. He then confessed his involvement in the incident and surrendered to the police.
During the trial period, Bhagat Singh led a hunger strike in the prison. He and his co-conspirators, Rajguru and Sukhdev were executed on the 23rd of March 1931.
Bhagat Singh was a true patriot. He did not only fight for the freedom of the country but had no qualms giving away his life in the event. His death brought about mixed emotions throughout the country. While those who believed in the Gandhian ideology felt that he was too aggressive and radical and hurt the freedom quest on the other hands his followers considered him a martyr. He is still remembered as Shaheed Bhagat Singh.