Before 20th Century some incidents of the armed rebellion against the British rulers were came into notice. The chronicles had reflected some events during the partition of Bengal in 1905.
Since the revolutionary movements were the part of Indian Freedom struggle that were suppressed by the British then and there. The revolutionary groups that were in favour of armed-violence to achieve the Independence come into this class. They were mainly centralized in Bengal, Maharashtra, Bihar, the United Provinces and Punjab.
Many more rebellion groups were scattered all across Indian sub-continent. There were numerous violent clashes against the British were seen in all the parts of India but some of them had left their deep impact on the freedom struggle.
Revolutionary Movements of Indian Independence
The detail of major events that helped the Indian Independence movement is given below:
Anushilan Samiti was a secret, revolutionary, armed, and anti-British party formed in Bengal. Its main objective was to practice (Anushilan) the path shown by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay. The literal meaning of Anushilan is contemplation, to practice reading, or deep study of the epics and religious thoughts.
The Anushilan Samiti was formed in 1902. It had been divided into two parts- Dhaka Anushilan Samiti and the Yugantar. This Samiti was active in the all parts of Bengal at the start of the 20th century. Calcutta and Dhaka were its two headquarters. The main work of the Anushilan Samiti was to gather the Youth in their branches and made them mentally and physically strong so that they could face the British firmly.
In their secret missions they inculcate knowledge to manufacture a bomb, gave arms training, and killing of those British who were cruel in nature. They also killed the Indian traitors who helped the British. The domain of Anushilan Samiti in Bengal compelled the British to cancel their decision of partition of Bengal that time.
The Anushilan Samiti was established by Satish Chandra Basu on 24th March, 1902. In Bengal the activity of revolutionaries had been activated and they started forming associations. Three sub-samities were working in Calcutta in 1902. This Anushilan Samiti was established by The Barrister of Calcutta Pramath Mitra. The Samiti was divided into three parts-
- The first part was headed by Pramath Mitra himself.
- The second part was leaded by a Bengali lady Sarla Devi. And
- The third part was commanded by an aggressive and violent revolutionary Arbindo Ghosh.
When we talk about the Indian Independence movement we compel to think about Gadar Party formed by Lala Hardayal in California in 1911 and how it encouraged the Indian Freedom Struggle. In 1912 Lala Hardayal distributed a document among the Indians living there that described the slaughter of Viceroy of India; Lord Hardinge was just and legal.
He called upon all the Indians and formed a party to start violent movements in India and named it Gadar Party. It was declared that the Party will publish a newspaper “Gadar” and distribute it among all the Indians living in foreign countries. This newspaper threw challenges for the revolution in strong words. It was sent secretly but reached in the hands of several Indians.
Objectives of Gadar Party
The main goal of the Gadar Party was to win Independence for India. Lala Hardayal wanted to inculcate the feeling of rebellion among the Indian soldiers. He believed that without aggression no one could win the race. Gadar Party sought the support of Germany, Turkey, and other anti-British countries. Lala Hardayal was sent to exile by the British government. He went Germany and founded Indian Independence committee there. On his inspiration a provisional government was established in Kabul presided by King Mahindra Pratap. From Kabul, Lala Hardayal had planned for the revolution in India.
Plan of Revolution
The Gadar Party had planned an attack on the British with the help of the Muslims living in Iran, Arab, Iraq, and Afghanistan. Later on the Sikhs in Punjab were also included. A large quantity of arms and ammunition had been sent to India. It was planned to attack on the military bases in Lahore, Benaras (Varanasi), and Meerut. Ras Bihari Bose, Sachindra Nath Sanyal, Ganesh Pingle, Kartar Singh and many others were associated. But The British government sensed the event before and the plan could not leave its effect. This event is also read as Lahore conspiracy.
Hindustan Socialist Republican Army
Hindustan Socialist Republican Army was a revolutionary association that was established in India to fight against the British till the end of the British rule. Hindustan Socialist Republican Army was formed in the leadership of the revolutionary leaders such as- Ram Prasad Bismil, Yogesh Chandra Chatterjee, Chandrasekhar Azad, and Sachindra Nath Sanyal in October 1924 at Kanpur. The main objective of the party was to arrange a violent movement to out-throne the British Rule from India and to establish United Federal Republic of India.
After Kakori incident four members of this army were hanged and 16 others were put into prisons. On 8th-9th September, 1928, a secret meeting of the revolutionaries was held in Firoz Shah Kotla ground and the Hindustan Socialist Republican Army was merged into Indian Socialist Republican Association.
Objective of Hindustan Socialist Republican Army
The final aim of Indian Socialist Republican Association was to win freedom and to establish a socialist government in India. The revolutionary ideas were published in their hand-book titled as Bomb ka Darshan (the philosophy of bomb). The Association had three departments-
- Organisation: presided by Vijay Kumar Sinha.
- Publicity : handled by Bhagat Singh.
- Strategy : headed by Chandrasekhar Azad.
Later the Movement
British had hanged four members of the Indian Socialist Republican Association in Kakori Incident trial and judgment- Rajendra Lahiri, Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfaqulla Khan, and Roshan Singh. Later on, in 1928 Lala Lajpat Roy was died in the Lathi-Charge in Lahore. These events accelerated the revolutionaries and they shot assistant superintendent of police John Saunders in the day-time in revenge of the death of Lala Lajpat Roy. Bhagat Singh, Sukhdeo, and Rajguru had thrown bombs in the assembly when British were putting the public safety and trade dispute bill. Gradually but firmly British were able to suppress the insurgencies.
Kakori Train Robbery
The Kakori conspiracy was occurred on 9th August, 1925. A group of ten revolutionaries had attacked on 8-down Saharanpur-Lucknow passenger train in the leadership of Ram Prasad Bismil and robbed the Government treasure to give the financial support to the Freedom Movement and to purchase arms and ammunition.
The news of this robbery was published in English newspapers and the British government had taken it seriously. The chief secret agent Khan Bahadur Tassadduq Hussain had made the certain inquiries and confirmed the British Government that it was planned and done by the revolutionaries. The British police increased the oppression more and arrested five members of the team. On 25th September, 1925 The British arrested 40 people in the night. Trials began and four were hanged and 20 were sent to Cellular Jail in Andaman and Nikobar Islands and put into the prison. Rest 16 people were released in lack of proof against them.
The Slogan Inqulab-Jindabad
In the Indian Freedom Struggle the slogan Inqulab-Jindabad was first tossed off by Bhagat Singh during the bomb blast in the Indian parliament in the British India. The slogan Inqulab-Jindabad was the Hindi version of the slogan Viva La Revolution. The slogan Viva La Revolution was the prime slogan during the Mexican Revolution which means ‘Long Live Revolution’.
Maulana Hasrat Mohani, a famous Urdu poet, revolutionary writer, journalist and social worker was believed to be the father of this slogan and he had penned down it in 1921. It was first coined by Bhagat Singh in 1929. The slogan Inqulab-Jindabad had become the source of inspiration for the freedom fighters and prevails in the present time too. It is a symbol of aggression.
The “Berlin committee for Indian independence” was established in 1915 by Virendra Nath Chattopadhya, including Bhupendra Nath Dutt & Lala Hardayal under “Zimmerman plan” with the full backing of German foreign office.
Their goal was mainly to achieve the following four objectives:
- To mobilize Indian revolutionaries abroad.
- To incite rebellion among Indian troops stationed abroad.
- To send volunteers and arms and ammunition to India.
- To organise an armed invasion in British India to gain India’s independence and sent British back to home.
More Information about Indian Independence Day:
Independence Day of India | Independence Day Essay | Importance of Independence Day in India Essay | Independence Day Speech | Speech on Independence Day for Teachers | Independence Day Speech for Principal | Slogans on Independence Day | Paragraph on Independence Day | Facts about Independence Day of India | Speech on 15 August 1947 by Nehru | Independence Day Quotes | Live Celebration Ceremony of 69th Independence Day of India at Red Fort Delhi | President’s Address to the Nation on the eve of Independence Day