Bhimrao Ramji Ambedkar is the Hero of our nation and an inspiration for millions. He transformed his life, from being a victim of untouchability in childhood to become the highest educated Indian civilian of his times and the architect of the Indian constitution. Bhimrao Ambedkar’s contribution to design the constitution of India is honorable. He spent his life fighting for the justice, equality, and rights of the backward classes.
Long and Short Essay on Bhimrao Ambedkar
Essay 1 (250 words)
Babasaheb Ambedkar’s interest was mainly in the social and political rights of Dalits and other lower castes. He was the Dalit leader post-independence period of India. He was the representative of Untouchables.
B.R. Ambedkar’s Conversion to Buddhism
Dalit Buddhist movement is a movement by Dalits led by Babasaheb Ambedkar in India. It profoundly re-interpreted Buddhism and started a school of Buddhism called Navayana. The movement is socially and politically connected to and drawn from Buddhism. Ambedkar launched the movement in 1956 when nearly half a million Dalits joined him and converted to Navayana Buddhism.
They collectively refused to follow Hinduism and contested the caste system. The rights of Dalit communities were promoted. The movement also refused to follow the ideas of traditional, Theravada, Vajrayana, Mahayana which are the sects of Buddhism. The new form of Buddhism taught by Babasaheb Ambedkar was pursued. It reinterpreted the Buddha’s religion in terms of social equality and class struggle.
After publishing several articles and books stating that Buddhism was the only way for Dalits to gain equality, on 14th October 1956 Ambedkar adopted Buddhism with lakhs of his supporters in a simple ceremony at Deekshabhoomi, Nagpur, few weeks before his death. His conversion gave a new lens to the Dalits suffering caste system in India to view their Identity and redefine their place in the society.
His conversion was not impulsive. It was an inspiration for the country’s Dalit community to view life in a new way; it was an absolute rejection of Hinduism and the dominance it came to characterize for lower caste. He declared that he was born as a Hindu but would not die as one, at a conference held in Nashik. For him, Hinduism had failed to secure human rights and continued caste discrimination.
As per Babasaheb, Buddhism directed the man to the inward potentiality within the inner self and trained mind to act righteously. His decision was grounded on the firm belief that conversion could improve the social status of the so-called ‘Lower classes’ of the country.
Essay 2 (400 words)
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar was a leading activist, economist, jurist, politician and social reformer who stood for the rights of Dalits and lower castes. He campaigned against social evils like untouchability and caste discrimination. He played the most important role in drafting the constitution of India. He was the first law minister of independent India and is rightly known as the architect of the Indian constitution.
Role of Dr. B.R. Ambedkar in Mahad Satyagraha
In the Indian caste system, untouchables were segregated from the Hindus. They were banned to use public water sources which were used by Hindus. Mahad Satyagraha was led by Dr. Bhimrao Ambedkar on 20th March 1927. This was to permit untouchables to use public tank water in Mahad, Maharashtra, India. Ambedkar launched the Satyagraha for the rights of untouchables to use water in public places. The location Mahad was selected for the movement. Numerous people from the Dalit community came forward to participate in the movement.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar struck a powerful blow against the Hindu Caste system. He stated that the march to chavadar tank was not to merely drink water from it but the meeting was called to set up the norms of equality. He also mentioned Dalit women during Satyagraha and appealed to them to abandon all the old customs and wear saris like high caste Indian women. After Ambedkar’s speech at Mahad, Dalit women were influenced to drape their saris like upper-class women. Higher class women like Indirabia Chitre and Lakshmibai Tipnis helped these Dalit women to drape the saree like high-class women.
Trouble roused when the rumors were spread that the untouchables would be entering the Vishweshwara Temple to pollute it. Riots upsurged from upper caste mobs beating up untouchables and ransacking their homes. A puja was performed by Hindus to purify the tank water arguing that the Dalits had polluted the water.
The second conference was decided to be held by Babasaheb Ambedkar in Mahad on 25th December 1927. But a case was filed against him by Hindus that tank was private property. Thus, the Satyagraha movement was not continued as the case was sub judice. Bombay High Court ruled that untouchables have the right to use tank water in December 1937.
Thus, Babasaheb Ambedkar always stood for the equality of Untouchables and other lower castes. He fought for the rights of Dalits. He was an activist and demanded social equality and justice.
Essay 3 (500 words)
Bhimrao Ambedkar is popularly known as Babasaheb Ambedkar. He was an Indian economist, jurist, politician, writer, philosopher, and social reformer. He is also popular as the Father of the Nation. He was the leading activist and his efforts to eliminate social evils like caste restrictions and untouchability were remarkable.
He fought for the rights of socially backward classes and Dalits throughout his life. He was employed as India’s first law minister in the Cabinet of Jawaharlal Nehru. In 1990 Bharat Ratna award was declared on his name, unfortunately when he was no more.
Early Life of Bhimrao Ambedkar
Bhimrao Ambedkar was the son of Bhimabai and Ramji born on 14th April 1891 in Mhow Army cantonment, central provinces MP. His father was a subedar in the Indian army. His family moved to Satara after his father’s retirement in 1894. Shortly after, his mother passed away and the children were looked after by their aunt. Baba Saheb Ambedkar his two brothers Balarama and Anand Rao and two sisters Manjula and Tulasa survived. And out of all the children, only Ambedkar went to higher school. Four years later after his mother passed away, his father married again and the family moved to Bombay. At the age of 15, he married to Ramabai.
He was born in the poor Dalit Caste family and his family was regarded as untouchable by upper-class families. All through his childhood, he faced the humiliation of caste discrimination. Babasaheb Ambedkar’s ancestors had served long for the army and his father worked in the British East Indian Army. Though the untouchables attended schools they were given little consideration by the teachers.
They had to sit outside the class and were segregated from that of Brahmins and privileged society. Even when they needed to drink water, someone from the upper class would pour water from a height as they were not allowed to touch the water and the vessel that contained it. The peon used to pour water for Babasaheb Ambedkar. He described this in his writings ‘No peon No water’. The humiliation terrified Ambedkar at the Army School. Everywhere he had to face this segregation and humiliation in the society.
Education: Bhimrao Ambedkar
He was the only Untouchable who joined Elphinstone High School in Mumbai. He was enrolled at the Elphinstone College in 1908 after passing his matriculation exam. His success was a reason to celebrate for untouchables as he was the first one to do so. He acquired his degree in economics and political science in 1912 from Bombay University. He received a Baroda State Scholarship under the scheme established by Sayajirao Gaekwad and enrolled at Columbia University in New York to study Economics.
In June 1915 he received his Master’s degree majors in economics and other subjects as history, sociology, philosophy, and politics. In 1916 he joined the London School of Economics and worked on his thesis; “The problem of the rupee: Its origin and solution”. In 1920 he went to England. He received a Doctorates degree by London University. In 1927 he obtained his Ph.D. in economics.
In spite of his childhood hardships and poverty, Dr. B.R Ambedkar with his efforts and dedication went on to become the highest educated Indian of his generation. He was the first Indian to receive a Doctorate Degree in Economics abroad.
Essay 4 (600 words)
After India’s independence government invited B.R. Ambedkar to serve as Independent India’s first Law Minister. He was appointed to write a new constitution of India and as the chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee. As a chairman of the Drafting Committee, his role as an architect of the constitution was crucial. The constitution drafted by Dr. Ambedkar was the first social document. The majority of the Constitutional provisions by him aimed at social revolution or attempt to promote revolution by establishing conditions important for achieving social revolution.
The provisions prepared by Ambedkar provided constitutional assurance and protection of civil liberties for citizens of India. This also included freedom of religion, the prohibition of all forms of discrimination and the abolition of untouchability. Ambedkar also advocated for the economic and social rights of women. He was successful in introducing a system of reservations of jobs in civil services, colleges and schools for the members of scheduled tribes, scheduled caste, and other backward classes.
Bhimarao Ambedkar’s Role to Eradicate Caste Discrimination
Caste is a system in which the distinction of status, duties, and rights of an individual is done on the basis of the birth of an individual in a particular group. It is a rigid form of social inequality. Babasaheb Ambedkar was born in a poor family, low Mahar caste. His family was subjected to constant social and economic discrimination.
Being from the Untouchable caste of Mahars he was a social outcast and was treated as untouchable. His teachers would not treat him well in the school and other children would not eat beside him. He had to sit outside the class and was segregated. He had to face this humiliation throughout his childhood. Later, he became the spokesperson of the backward castes and classes in India.
Due to the caste system, many social evils prevailed in the society. For Babasaheb Ambedkar, it was important to break the religious notion on which the caste system was based. According to him, the caste system was not just a division of labor but also the division of laborers. He believed in the unity of all the communities. After passing the Bar course in Gray’s Inn Babasaheb Ambedkar started his legal career. He used his skills in advocating the cases of caste discrimination. His victory in defending non-Brahmin leaders charging Brahmins established the base of his future battles.
Babasaheb Ambedkar initiated full-fledged movements for the rights of Dalits. He demanded that public water sources should be open to all the castes and the right for all the castes to enter temples. He condemned Hindu scriptures supporting discrimination.
Bhimarao Ambedkar chose to fight against caste discrimination that afflicted him throughout his life. He proposed the idea of a separate electoral system for untouchables and other disregarded communities. He projected the concept of reservations for Dalits and other outcasts. Poona pact was signed in 1932 by Babasaheb Ambedkar and Pandit Madan Mohan Malvia, for the reservation of seats for untouchable classes in the provisional legislature, within the general electorate.
The notion of Poona pact was more seats to lower classes in return to their continuance of joint electorate. These classes were later defined as Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes. In order to reach people and make them understand the negatives of social evils, he launched a Newspaper called Mooknayka (Leader of the silent).
Babasaheb Ambedkar also joined Mahatma Gandhi in the Harijan Movement that opposed the social injustice faced by backward caste people in India. Babasaheb Ambedkar and Mahatma Gandhi were the leading personalities who fought to eliminate Untouchability from India.
Thus Dr. B.R. Ambedkar fought throughout his life for justice and equality. He acted for the eradication of caste discrimination and inequality. He firmly believed in justice and equality and ensured that the constitution makes no discrimination based on religion and caste. He was the forefather of republic India.