Aryabhatta is considered one of the greatest astronomers and mathematicians of ancient times. Even today, scientists consider him as their source of inspiration. Aryabhatta, who holds the most important place among Indian mathematicians, has presented the principle of astrology and related mathematics in his famous book Aryabhatiya in 121 Aryan-verses.

He represented the value of pi (∏) more accurately than the great Archimedes in the field of mathematics, and for the first time in the field of astronomy it was declared that the Earth itself rotates on its axis. It is surprising that without the advanced tools, he discovered astrology about one and a half thousand years ago.

Aryabhatta discovered the theory propounded by Copernicus thousands of years ago. In the Golapada, Aryabhatta first proved that the earth rotates on its axis. According to this great mathematician, the relation of circumference and diameter of a circle comes to 62,832:20,000 which is pure to four decimal places.

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### Aryabhatta Essay – 1 (200 Words)

Indian mathematics and astrology were highly advanced in ancient times. In Gupta period, India made unprecedented progress in the fields of literature, art and science. It is believed that the birth of the great mathematician Aryabhatta is considered in the Gupta period.

Aryabhatta, the precious gem that made India shine in the world, not only contributed to scientific advancement but also gave many theories in the field of mathematics. By creating a book called ‘Aryabhatiya’, he made India proud in the world. The discovery of zero by Aryabhatta gave a new direction to the entire world.

Aryabhatta is believed to be from Kusumapura (Patliputra), present day Patna, the capital of Bihar state, which was then known as Patliputra. Certified information about parents’ name and family introduction is not available. Based on estimates, his date of birth is considered to be 13^{th} April 476 A.D.

Aryabhatta was the first scientist to present the five laws of mathematics in one verse, which told that the earth revolved on its axis. He threw light on the real reason for solar and lunar eclipse. Aryabhatta also explained that the moon and other planets themselves are not luminous, but the rays of the sun reflect in them. The great mathematician and astronomer Aryabhatta also wrote three books named Das Gitika, Aryabhatiyam and Tantra.

### Aryabhatta Essay – 2 (300 Words)

**Introduction**

Acharya Aryabhata is a sparkling diamond in the long Indian tradition, which has provided astounding grants of knowledge and science to the entire world.

The chancellor of Nalanda University Acharya Aryabhata is counted among the ardent scholars of mathematics and astrology. After many years of research, Aryabhata composed two books called ‘Asmakatan’ and ‘Aryasiddhanta’, the knowledge of which still haunts the experts.

**Works in the Field of Mathematics and Astronomy**

The place-value system, which laid the foundation for modern mathematics, gets its first information from Aryabhatta’s compositions.

According to the French mathematician Georges Iffrah, the ‘pie’ which took Western scholars thousands of years to analyze, has been properly evaluated by Aryabhata in the mathematics of ‘Asmakatan’.

The remaining chapters of this treatise are also full of esoteric equations of trigonometry and mentruation. Many scholars also believe that algebra composed by al-Khwajimi is based on the Arabic translation of Aryabhatta’s texts.

Similarly, in ‘Aryasiddhanta’, the calculation of Sun and lunar eclipses by Aryabhata, analysis of the movement of Sun and Earth, latitude, equator and solar system was so accurate that all the popular Panchangs (calendars) of South Asia have their origin based on his formulated formulas.

The discovery of zero is credited to Arya Bhatt, who was born in 476 AD. Arya Bhatt was the first person who extensively used zero and defined its value. Only then the importance of zero was understood and the path of a revolution in mathematics opened. However, Aryabhata did not directly use zero. He used to write letters instead of numbers and fixed the value of each letter.

**Conclusion**

Aryabhata was a great mathematician and astronomer of India. He will always be remembered for his work in mathematics and astronomy. His works still inspire scholars. His creations were used by Greek and Arab countries to further develop them. Aryabhata was a teacher who reached the ultimate knowledge of mathematics, kinematics and spheres and handed over to the world.

### Aryabhatta Essay – 3 (400 Words)

**Introduction**

Aryabhatta was a great astrologer and mathematician of ancient India. He composed the Aryabhatiya treatise, which presents many theories of astrology. In the same book, he has written his birthplace Kusumpur and the birth term Saka Samvat 398. The ancient name of present-day Patna in Bihar was Kusumpur but Aryabhatta’s Kusumpur was in the south, it is now almost proven.

According to another belief, he was born in the Ashmak country of Maharashtra. His scientific work could be appreciated in the capital. Therefore, after a long journey, he completed his compositions in court of Chandragupta Maurya, a ruler of Gupta Dynasty, located in Kusumpur near modern Patna.

**Contribution**

The great discovery of Zero (0) made his name immortal in history. Without which it is difficult to imagine mathematics. Aryabhatta was the first to explain the place value system.

He said that our Earth revolves around the Sun on its axis and the Moon is the satellite of the Earth which revolves around the Earth. He believed that the orbits of all the planets are long circles. He told that the light of the moon is the reflection of the sun.

Aryabhatta also gave knowledge about the position of the celestial body in the sky. He described the perimeter of the earth as 24835 mile, which is the best possible value compared to the modern value.

Aryabhata believed that virtual rotation of celestial bodies is possible due to axial rotation of the Earth. This is an important concept of the nature of the solar system but the later thinkers abandoned this idea as flawed. Aryabhatta has explained the true causes of eclipse, whereas before them people considered the demons Rahu and Ketu to be the cause.

**Facts:**

- Aryabhatiya composed by Aryabhatta is still used for Hindu calendar.
- India’s first satellite was named ‘Aryabhata’ after his matchless contributions to mathematics and astronomy.
- At the age of 23, Aryabhatta composed the ‘Aryabhatiya’, in view of its usefulness and success, the then King Chandragupta Maurya made him head of the Nalanda University.
- Aryabhata never used the Brahmi script to denote numerals, which had been going on according to cultural practice since Vedic times. He always used Alphabets.

**Conclusion**

2012 was celebrated as the Year of Mathematics, honouring India’s first mathematician and astronomer Aryabhatta by UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization). Aryabhatta’s name has also been established with full respect in the report of scientists released from Chicago. Aryabhata was a great man who will be remembered for his discoveries in the field of Mathematics and Astronomy with great respect.

### Aryabhatta Essay – 4 (500 Words)

**Introduction**

Aryabhatta was one of the greatest astronomers and mathematicians of ancient times. He was one of the first to use algebra. You will be surprised to know that he wrote his famous work ‘Aryabhatiya’ in the form of poetry. Most of the information given in this book is related to astronomy and spherical trigonometry. 33 laws of arithmetic, algebra and trigonometry are also given in ‘Aryabhatiya’.

**Work**

Aryabhatta’s works come from the texts composed by him. This great mathematician composed texts such as Aryabhatiya, Das Gitika, Tantra and Aryabhatta Doctrine. Scholars differ a lot about the ‘Aryabhatta doctrine’. It is believed that the ‘Aryabhatta doctrine’ was widely used in the seventh century. At present only 34 verses of this book are available and scholars do not have any definite information about how such a useful text disappeared.

**Aryabhatiya:** The Aryabhatiya provides a direct description of the work done by him. Aryabhatiya describes square root, cube root, parallel series and different types of equations. In fact, this book is a collection of mathematics and astronomy.

Aryabhatiya has a total of 108 verses, as well as 13 introductory additions. It is divided into four terms or chapters:

- Lyric product
- Mathematics
- Chronogram
- Golpada

**Aryabhatta Doctrine:** Aryabhatta Doctrine is a function over astronomical calculations. The information we get about this is either from the writings of Varahamihira, contemporary of Aryabhatta or the works and writings of later mathematicians and commentators such as Brahmagupta and Bhaskara etc.

Based on whatever information is available to us about this book, it seems that this work is based on the old Surya Siddhanta (Principles).

Many astronomical instruments are also described in this book. The main among these are the cone-machine, the shadow-device, possibly the angle-measuring device, the Dhanur (Bow)-yantra, Chakra (Circular)-yantra, a cylindrical stick and the water clocks.

**Aryabhatta’s Contribution**

**Explaining Astrology Principles:**Aryabhata has written almost all the things of astrology theory in his treatise and some things of higher mathematics in formula.**The Father of Algebra:**Aryabhata is the first person in India who has definitely included a mathematics chapter in his astrology theory. The formulas and principles of arithmetic, algebra and geometry have been presented. Aryabhata is considered the father of algebra.**Value of Pie:**Aryabhata had stated the value of pie as 3.1416, which is very close to the value derived from modern methods.**Earth is Round in Shape**: Earth is round and moves on its axis, the credit for the rendering of the principle is to Aryabhatta.**To Refute Mythological Assumptions about the Sun and the Moon:**He has contradicted the mythological assumptions about the Sun and the Moon and said that Rahu and Ketu have no place in the eclipse but it is the result of the moon and the shadow of the Earth.**Discovering the Decimal System:**Aryabhatta first discovered the decimal system, which made him world famous. This limited the number expansion.

**Creation of Many Commentaries on Aryabhatiyam:** Many commentaries are currently written on the Aryabhatiyam text which proves its importance.

**Conclusion**

The discovery of zero by Aryabhatta gave a new direction to the entire world and his name became immortal in history. That is why Aryabhata is known throughout the world for his great works.

### Aryabhatta Essay – 5 (600 Words)

**Introduction**

Aryabhatta was the greatest mathematician, astrologer and astronomer of ancient India. His contribution in the field of science and mathematics is incredible. His discoveries are a source of inspiration for modern-day scientists.

At the age of 23, Aryabhatta wrote his famous book Aryabhatiya, which influenced King Chandragupta Maurya to make Aryabhatta the head of Nalanda University. India’s first satellite was named ‘Aryabhatta’ in his honour.

The verses of Aryabhatiya were taught in all the Gurukuls till the 16^{th} century. Aryabhatta was the first to mention the value of ‘pie’ and ‘sine’. In order to solve complex mathematical problems easily, he invented equations, which became famous all over the world.

**Birth and Education**

The year of birth of Aryabhatta is verified, but historians still have different opinions about his place of birth. There is no authentic evidence of his place of birth. Aryabhatta was born in 476 A.D. in Ashmak in Maharashtra but according to some historians, Aryabhatta was born in Patna, Bihar.

According to historians, during Aryabhatta time, a university famous for higher education was located in Kusumpur, Patna. That is why he received education from there. But there is no authentic and concrete evidence for this.

**Aryabhatta’s Compositions**

Aryabhatta composed many texts but at the present time only three of his books exist whose names are Aryabhatiya, Das Gitika and Tantra.

Aryabhatiya is his most prominent and popular book. Bhaskar, another Indian mathematician, has referred name of this book Aryabhatiya in his writings. The description of his works is found in this book. A detail discussion of Arithmetic, algebra, trigonometry is in this book.

**Contributions of Aryabhatta**

**Invention of pi:**Aryabhata gave the value of pi to four digits of decimal. Describing this discovery, Aryabhatta has written in his book to add four to a hundred, then multiply by eight and then add 62,000 and derive the quotient from 20,000, the answer will be the value of pi.**About Earth’s Circumference:**Aryabhata calculated the length of the circumference of the Earth. Which he said was 39,968.05 kilometers in length, which is just 0.2% less than the actual length i.e. 40,075.01 kilometers. It is still a matter of wonder for modern science how such calculations were possible at that time.**Invention of Zero:**He gave the most important digit in the field of mathematics i.e. zero; that has proved an important tool in the path of advancement of mathematical calculations.**Aryabhatta Contribution in Trigonometry**

Aryabhata has made a very significant contribution in the field of trigonometry. He defined sine, cosine, and inverse sine in his text Arya Siddhanta, from where trigonometry was born.

**Aryabhatta Contribution in Algebra**

Aryabhata also invented the formula of sum of the series of cube and square up to n numbers.

**Aryabhatta Contribution in astronomy**

Aryabhatta has made a very significant contribution in the field of astronomy. He proved that the earth rotates continuously on its axis due to which the position of the stars in the sky changes. Aryabhata has given scientific reasons for solar eclipse and lunar eclipse in his texts.

He told that the Sun is located in the center of the solar system. Earth and other planets revolve around it. He also explained that the Earth revolves on its axis, it takes 23 hours, 56 minutes and 1 second to revolve around the Sun and a year has 365 days, 6 hours, 12 minutes and 30 seconds.

**Death**

Aryabhatta’s death is believed to have occurred at the age of 74 years in 550 A.D.

**Conclusion**

The Indian government launched its first satellite into space on 19^{th}April 1975, and named it Aryabhatta. Some bacteria were discovered in the stratosphere by the Indian Space Research Organization; one of which is named Bacillus Aryabhatta. A scientific institute in Nainital has been named ‘Aryabhatta Observational Science Research Institute’.

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