The country’s first female Prime Minister was born on 19th November 1917. She was born in Allahabad, her childhood name was Priyadarshini. She was a soft-spoken woman with an effective personality and knew the skill to implement her tough decisions with sheer boldness. In June 1984, she carried out military action to drive out the terrorists from the Golden Temple, the holy site of Sikhs in Amritsar.
With steely intentions and fearless decisions, Indira Gandhi took over the reins of the country for three consecutive times between 1966 and 1977 and then reached the post again in 1980 and she was assassinated while on the post on 31st October 1984.
Long and Short Essay on Indira Gandhi in English
Essay on Indira Gandhi has been bestowed below for perusal of our avid readers and students that will provide the detail information and knowledge about the life and work of this prominent female leader.
These Indira Gandhi essays are created in different word lengths for the convenience of students of different standards. They may choose any of them as per their need and class.
We have tried to keep the language simple so that it may be clear the concept of readers as well as can be memorised in first glance. These facts will also help students to know about our past Prime Minister and can be delivered in speeches on national festivals or birth anniversary of Indira Gandhi.
Indira Gandhi Essay – 1 (200 Words)
Indira was born on 19th November, 1917, into the politically influential Nehru family. Her father was Jawaharlal Nehru and her mother was Kamala Nehru. Indira got her “Gandhi” surname after her marriage to Firoz Gandhi.
Her grandfather Motilal Nehru was a prominent Indian nationalist leader. Her father Jawaharlal Nehru was a distinguished figure in the Indian independence movement and was the first Prime Minister of independent India.
After completing her schooling in 1934–35, Indira joined the Visva-Bharati University, built by Rabindranath Tagore in Shantiniketan. Rabindranath Tagore named her “Priyadarshini”. She then moved to England and joined Somerville College, Oxford after succeeding in the exams in 1937.
During this time she often met Firoz Gandhi, whom she knew from Allahabad and who was studying at the London School of Economics. She was eventually married to Firoz Gandhi on 16th March 1942 in a private Adi Dharma Brahmo-Vedic ceremony at Anand Bhawan, Allahabad.
Indira Gandhi was elected President of the Congress in 1960. Indira Gandhi was made the Minister of Information and Broadcasting after the death of her father. When Lal Bahadur Shastri became the Prime Minister after his father and after Shastri’s death in 1966, she was elected to the post of Prime Minister by the Congress. Indira Gandhi emerged as a powerful leader after becoming Prime Minister.
Indira Gandhi Essay – 2 (300 Words)
Indira Gandhi was the first woman to become the Prime Minister of India. She was born on 19th November 1917 at Allahabad. She was the only child of her father Jawaharlal Nehru. She got her primary education at home and later she studied in Shantiniketan. She was sent to England for higher education. She was fearless since her childhood.
She formed the Vanar Sena (Monkey Army, a group of children) as a teenager for the freedom struggle. She was an active member of the Indian National Congress. She also got the opportunity to become the Prime Minister of India after his father’s death.
She did many important works during her prime minister tenure. Nationalization of 14 big banks took place during her time. She gave new power to the Congress Party and cleaned the Congress Party from the old and sycophants and renamed the Congress as Indira’s Congress (Congress I).
Apart from nationalization of 14 banks, she did many extraordinary works due to which she will always be remembered in history. She never gave up in front of enemies. It was her diplomatic skill in which Pakistan was dusted off in the 1972 war, and Bangladesh emerged as an independent country. She imposed Emergency in 1977 to teach her opponents a lesson.
The aim of which was to make India an economic power. Although she lost the election badly after the imposition of Emergency, she did not lose courage and was re-elected in the 1980 election on the strength of her charismatic personality. She then became the President of the Non-Aligned Movement and discharged that role with great responsibility.
Several major steps were taken to crush terrorism in Punjab, one of which was to drive away the terrorists from the Golden Temple. She had to pay the price for it by giving up her life. On 31st October 1984, she was shot and killed by her personal security guards. She was determined to perform her duties and was known as iron lady and will be remembered in Indian history.
Indira Gandhi Essay – 3 (400 Words)
Indira Gandhi’s birthday was an auspicious day when Lenin played the bugle of mass revolution against the monarchy in Russia. That historic day was on 19th November 1917. Indira’s personality provides amazing coordination of foresight, vigor and courage. The beginning of her political life should be understood from her childhood.
Education and Married Life
Indira’s education could not be duly done. Initially, she was sent to Shantiniketan. Later, she also studied in Oxford, but her actual education was done with Pandit Nehru on her travels abroad and on the basis of letters written by his father.
In 1942, Indira was married to Feroze Gandhi. Indira Gandhi had two sons Rajiv Gandhi and Sanjay Gandhi.
Political Life and Career as Prime Minister of India
At the age of 21, Indira Gandhi became a member of the Congress. After the death of Pandit Nehru, she became the Minister of Information Broadcasting in the Cabinet at the request of Prime Minister Sri Lal Bahadur Shastri.
After the sudden demise of Sri Lal Bahadur Shastri, Indira Gandhi was unanimously elected Prime Minister of the country on 19th January 1966.
The fourth general elections were held in February 1967 and this time again Indira Gandhi became the Prime Minister. After this election, the personality of Indira Gandhi grew more. People flocked to see her and to hear her speeches.
In the 1971 elections, she again won by an absolute majority. She did many important tasks during her reign such as nationalization of banks, surrender of Pakistani army, formation of Bangladesh, establishing friendship with Russia and establishment of strong existence to India.
Indira Gandhi had to see many ups and downs in her long political life. In the period from June 1975 to March 1977, she declared an emergency in the country.
This day was the dark day of Indian politics and was the biggest mistake in Indira Gandhi’s life. She lost the Lok Sabha elections from Rae Bareli in March 1977.
The Congress was defeated badly, but the ruling Janata Party disintegrated in just two years due to mutual discord, divisions and chair contests.
Mid-term elections were held and the Congress won again with a total majority and Indira became the Prime Minister again and remained in office till her last time.
Indira Gandhi did extremely important work on the world stage. She was emerged as the leader of developing countries, even developed countries considered the opinion of Mrs. Indira Gandhi as very important. She has proved with her intelligence, skill and courage that women can also be versatile and all-round in the dignity of the world.
Indira Gandhi Essay – 4 (500 Words)
Indira ‘Priyadarshini’ Gandhi was the first woman Prime Minister of India. Indira Gandhi, popularly known as Iron Lady, had a distinct identity in Indian politics. Her strong decisions made her one of the most powerful leaders in the world.
Let us know about the decisions of Indira Gandhi that changed the picture of India:
Nationalization of Banks
Indira Gandhi made an important decision during her tenure to nationalize banks. She nationalized 14 private banks on 19th July 1969. These banks were mostly occupied by large industrial houses.
Indira Gandhi believed that if the banks were nationalized, it would be good because due to that bank credit could be given across the country. On July 19, 1969, an ordinance was brought and the ownership of 14 banks was handed over to the state.
Closed the Privy Purse of Feudal Kingdoms
Before independence, there were about 500 small and big princely states in India. Every year, in lieu of the integration of his princely state into India, the Privy Purse was tied by the government of India.
This agreement was signed by Sardar Patel at the time of unification of the princely states. Indira Gandhi decided to abolish the Privy Purse. She amended the constitution in 1971 and closed it.
The Rise of Bangladesh
After the partition of India, the people of East Pakistan felt suffocated under the rule of the Pakistan Army. Sheikh Mujibur Rahman was fighting for the autonomy of East Pakistan from the beginning. Civil war started in East Pakistan. As a result, about one million Bengali refugees reached Assam in India, causing an internal and economic crisis in the country.
India had to intervene in this problem on the request of Bangladeshis, which led to the 1971 war. Around 93,000 Pakistani soldiers were made prisoners of war in this war. After a long period of political instability a new nation emerged, named Bangladesh.
India’s First Nuclear Test
On 18th May 1974, India conducted the country’s first nuclear test in Pokhran, which was named by the then Prime Minister Indira Gandhi “Smiling Buddha”. This nuclear test was done in Malka village near Loharki village, about 140 km from Jaisalmer in Rajasthan.
In the dry well in Malka village, where the first nuclear test was conducted, a huge pit and raised ground still tell that glorious moment. The United States imposed several economic restrictions on India, which Indira Gandhi accepted and she continued to put India on the path of development.
Operation Blue Star in 1984
This operation is considered to be the most dreaded military operation. Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale and his colleagues wanted to create a separate country ‘Khalistan’. Bhindranwale and his companions were hiding in the Golden Temple.
To kill those terrorists, Indira Gandhi decided to run ‘Operation Bluestar’. Through this operation, the Indian Army liberated the Harimandir Sahib campus in Punjab from pro-Khalistan pro-general Jail Singh Bhindranwale and his supporters.
Indira Gandhi is still known worldwide for her talent and political fortitude. During her tenure, she took many important and bold decisions. Her decisions made the country strong on the economic front.
Indira Gandhi Essay – 5 (600 Words)
Mrs. Indira Gandhi was the only daughter of India’s first Prime Minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru. As Prime Minister, she centralized the administration more than necessary. No one has ever amended the original form of the Constitution of India as much as it did during her reign.
Indira was born in a family which was quite prosperous both financially and intellectually. However, Indira’s childhood was full of loneliness. Her father, being a politician, was either out of the house for several days or in jail. Her mother died of tuberculosis.
After the Independence, Jawaharlal Nehru was made acting Prime Minister with the formation of an interim government. After this, Indira’s political activities increased further. The responsibility of looking after the needs of an aging father also fell on Indira.
She became a trusted secretary and nurse of Pandit Nehru. While helping her father, she also got a good understanding of politics. She was inducted into the Congress Party executive in 1955.
Indira as Prime minister
After the untimely death of Sri Lal Bahadur Shastri, on 11th January 1966, Congress President K.K. Kamaraj suggested Indira’s name for the post of Prime Minister. On 24th January 1966, Mrs. Indira Gandhi became the first woman Prime Minister of India after some controversies.
When and how Emergency was Declared in Indira Gandhi Government
- The Slogan Eradicate Poverty and Indira: In order to strengthen her position in the party and the country, Indira Gandhi dissolved the Lok Sabha and announced a mid-term election, which shocked the opposition. Indira Gandhi went to the polls with the slogan ‘Eradicate Poverty’ and gradually the electoral atmosphere began to build in her favour and the Congress gained a lot. Congress got 352 seats out of 518.
- The Period of Economic Recession: Indira Gandhi had a huge success in this election and tried to implement new programs of development in various areas but problems within the country were increasing. People were upset due to inflation. Economic problems also increased due to the economic burden of 1971 war. Meanwhile, drought and famine worsened the situation.
- Allegation of Corruption and the Inflation: Overall, a period of economic recession was going on in which industry businesses were also falling apart. Unemployment had also increased a lot and government employees were demanding wage increase due to inflation. In the midst of all these problems, allegations of corruption were also leveled against the government.
- Movement led by Opposition and Indira: Indira Gandhi twice declared states governed by the opposition as ‘anarchic’ under Section 356 of the Constitution and imposed President’s rule on them. Due to which some well-known leaders of the party and opposition leaders turned against the government.
- Fierce Movement by Opposition and Indira: Raj Narayan filed an election petition and on 12th June 1975; the Allahabad High Court quashed the election of Indira Gandhi and banned her from contesting elections for six years. Indira appealed against this decision to the Supreme Court and the court fixed the day of July 14, but the opposition did not want to wait until July 14. Jai Prakash Narayan and the supported opposition gave the movement a fierce look.
- Declaration of Emergency: To counter these circumstances, on June 26, 1975, the President declared a state of emergency in the morning and Jayaprakash Narayan, Morarji Desai and thousands of other big and small leaders were arrested and imprisoned. Government newspapers, radio and television Censored on. Fundamental rights were also almost abolished.
After this, elections were held in 1977; perhaps Indira Gandhi could not evaluate the situation properly. The united opposition and its allies got 330 seats out of 542 while Indira Gandhi’s Congress Party could manage only 154 seats. But the opposition could not handle the country properly and mid-term elections were declared. In this election her party won 353 seats and she became the Prime minister again.