Urbanization Essay

Urbanization is the process in which people migrate from backward and rural areas to urban areas often attributed to modernization and industrialization. Industrial revolution has given rise to Urbanization by creating job opportunities that induces people from rural areas to migrate to urban areas. With economic and social reforms demand for man power has increased in urban areas.

Long and Short Essay on Urbanization in English

Here are essays on urbanization of varying lengths to help you with the topic in your exam. You can select any Urbanization essay as per your need:

Urbanization Essay 1 (200 Words)

Urbanization refers to movement of mankind from rural areas to urban areas and how society adapts the changes. India is facing serious problem of rise in urban population presently. With Urbanization there is increase in social, economic and political progress but on the other hand it also leads to socio-economic problems due to unplanned growth in urban population and lack of infrastructural facilities.

The natural growth in population combined with the growth due to migration puts heavy load on public utilities like housing, water, health, education, transport and other commodities and services.

People from rural areas migrate to urban areas for better employment opportunities, better education, health and medical facilities, commercialization, better standard of living, social status and so on. Modern-day farming involves new technology lessening the need of manpower leading to Urbanization.

There are several problems that upsurge due to Urbanization that need serious attention. Some of the chief problems in India due to Urbanization are overpopulation, poverty, environmental degradation, unemployment, transport, sanitation, pollution and so on.

Planning and investment is required for infrastructural development. Developing clean cities and green cities is essential. Provisions of essential services such as health, education, clean water, food and electricity among the masses should be the goal. Spreading awareness and educating people about family planning and population control should be emphasized.


Urbanization Essay 2 (300 Words)


Urbanization is the rise in growth of people living in cities and towns. Urbanization also means the transformation of society whereby rural economy is being transformed to advanced industrial economy. It is highly accepted notion that urban areas as compared to rural areas have achieved better social, economic and political development. People from the rural areas are induced to urban areas to take advantage of its advanced economic and social benefits.

Urbanization in India

Urbanization began to stimulate in India after independence due to rise in the development of the private sector. Population living in urban areas in India according to census 2001 was 28.53%, standing at 31.16% as per census 2011. A survey conducted by UN state of the world population report in 2007, predicts 40.76% population in India is expected to live in urban areas by 2030 and will lead to world’s urban population surge by 2050.

Main causes of Urbanization in India are Industrial revolution, Urbanization for economic development, economic opportunities and infrastructure facilities, development of private sectors, employment opportunities, land fragmentations and better standard of living.

Like every coin has two sides, Urbanization has several positive as well as negative effects. The positive factors of Urbanization are generation of employment opportunities, better and higher education, healthcare and medical facilities, housing, transport, new technology, social integration, electricity and better standard of living. The negative effects of Urbanization are unemployment, overcrowding, global warming, traffic congestions and air pollution, poverty, shortage in supply of water, urban crime, trash disposal issues and so on. With the passing time negative impacts of Urbanization are increasing immensely.


Due to growth in population, industrialization and infrastructural development has become a necessity in rural areas. This will also raise employment opportunities in rural areas. Better education, healthcare, transport, sanitation facilities should be provided in rural areas.


Urbanization Essay 3 (400 Words)


Urbanization is the process in which people leave rural areas and shift to urban areas either due to push or pull factors. Urbanization turns out to have positive effects when happens to the certain extent. The positive effects of the Urbanization include employment to the unemployed, better education, health care and medical facilities, infrastructural development and access to new and advanced technologies. Urbanization is the process of development. However, over Urbanization in cities especially metro cities is resulting in adverse effects.

Positive Effects of Urbanization

Here is a detailed look at the positive effects of Urbanization:

  • Efficiency: Urban areas are more efficient in providing resources than rural areas. Basic amenities such as clean water, housing and electricity are easily provided.
  • Accessibility: Apart from the basic resources people in urban areas get easy access to health care and medical facilities, higher and better education, transport, entertainment etc.
  • Better Employment: People from rural areas often migrate to urban areas in search of better employment opportunities. Due to industrialization and commercialization there are several job and business opportunities available in cities.
  • Education: There are more schools, universities and colleges in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Students migrate to urban areas for higher or better education with or without their families. Students can choose from a variety of career options available in cities for their bright future.
  • Health care: There are several health care and medical facilities available in urban areas as compared to rural areas.
  • Better social amalgamation: Urbanization promotes cultural and social fusion. People of various religions, castes and gender work and socialize together breaking down the norms of social and cultural barriers.

Push and Pull Factors of Urbanization

There are various push factors and pull factors of Urbanization in India. Push factors are the factors due to which people have to leave rural areas and move to urban areas for instance, unemployment, poverty, lack of infrastructure and limited resources. Pull factors are the factors that induced people to move to urban areas e.g. employment opportunities, better education, infrastructure development, commercialization, health and medical care.


Urbanization also means the transformation of society whereby rural culture is being transformed to modern urban culture. It is alteration from traditional rural economies to industrial economies. Urbanization allows the overall urban population to enjoy the fruits of economic and social development. However, due to increase in global warming due to Urbanization serious measures need to be taken for clean and green cities.


Urbanization Essay 4 (500 Words)


The mass movement of people from rural areas to urban areas, i.e., cities and towns is called Urbanization, the process in which population in cities and towns increases. Higher the population, higher is the demand of public utilities like housing, sanitation water, health, education and so on. Urbanization is subjected to range of elements such as urban planning, economics, sociology and health care.

The concept of Urbanization is increase in developing and developed society as people want to move to cities and towns to enjoy the benefits of social and economic development that include better education, health care, housing, better work opportunities and sanitation.

Main Causes of Urbanization

Here are some of the main causes of Urbanization:

  1. Industrialization
  2. Commercialization
  3. Social benefits
  4. Employment opportunities
  5. Modernization
  6. Government
  7. Better Education

Here is a look at these factors in brief:

  • Industrialization

Industrialization is the concept of moving from agricultural sector to industrial sector. Industrialization creates economic growth and employment opportunities. With industrial revolution in developing and developed countries, more and more people are moving from rural areas to urban areas for better employment opportunities.

  • Commercialization

Modern-day trade and commerce also result in Urbanization. In modern times, development of marketing institutions and methods of trade have significantly contributed to Urbanization. There are better commercial opportunities and returns in urban areas than in rural areas. As a result, people are tempted to urban areas.

  • Social Benefits

There are several social benefits in urban areas compared to rural areas like better education, better health care, transport, sanitation and social status. Better recreational facilities are available such as play grounds, theatres, parks and clubs. Thus, people move to urban areas for enjoying the benefits of modern lifestyle.

  • Employment Opportunities

In rural areas people mainly have to depend on agricultural sector for their living whereas in the urban areas there are several employment opportunities in various sectors such as education, health care, transport, banking, media, television and sports to name a few.

Agricultural sector mainly depends on monsoon. In times of natural calamities and drought, people have to migrate to urban areas in search of employment. With modern farming technology manpower needed in farming sector is decreased leading to Urbanization.

  • Modernization

Urban areas are characterized by new technology, infrastructural development, better health care and medical facilities, liberalization and better standard of living. This induces people from backward and rural areas to move to urban areas.

  • Government

The management of administration is also responsible for Urbanization. The government has not maintained the rapidity with city growth in terms of infrastructure management or spatial.

  • Better Education

As compared to rural areas there are better education facilities available in urban areas. The schools and colleges providing professional education are all located in urban areas. Thus young girls and boys either alone or with their families shift to urban areas to seek quality education.


Poverty and economic degradation are the major problems rising with Urbanization that need serious attention. Planning and investment in sustainable industries, eco-friendly infrastructure and eco-friendly technology is essential. Encouraging the use of eco-friendly products and technology among the masses is vital. Creating more and more job opportunities and equality will help fight poverty.


Urbanization Essay 5 (600 Words)


Increase in the volume of total population in urban areas is called Urbanization. Rising population in urban areas creates rise in the demand of basic amenities such as food, health, transport and shelter in such areas. This contributes to the development of land for housing, economic support institutions, commercialization, transport and so on.

Problems Due to Urbanization

Given below are the problems that we face due to Urbanization:

  • Overcrowding

Overcrowding means over population in the urban areas due to migration. Cities where the population is rising every single day are getting overcrowded. This is the current situation in all the big cities in India. Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Delhi are some of the examples of overcrowded cities.

  • Housing

When the population increases, the demand for housing also increases. The factors that are mainly responsible for the lack of housing facilities are lack of financial resources, poverty and unemployment.

  • Unemployment

The chief cause of unemployment is over population in the urban areas due to migration of people from rural locations to these areas. The growth in economic opportunities fails to keep pace with growth in urban population.

  • Slum Areas

The unplanned growth in the urban areas is growing the spread of slums. Rise in slum settlements in India is a striking feature. Urbanization, poverty and overpopulation, has increased the growth of slums as high rate of land and property in urban areas is beyond the reach of rural migrants and urban poor.

  • Transport

Large use of vehicles for transport has increased traffic congestion making the movement slow and difficult.

  • Urban Crime

With the rise in urban population there is rise in poverty and unemployment. Due to poverty there is rise in crimes like theft, pick pocketing, cheating and murders.

  • Air Pollution

Urbanization is a major cause of air pollution and global warming. Industries release greenhouse gases causing rise in the temperature of the earth and creating air pollution. Larger use of vehicles release gases by fuel combustion. Large amount of garbage from the landfills is burnt causing air pollution.

  • Water

Water is the most important element of nature to sustain life. Due to overcrowding in the cities the supply of water is falling short compared to the demand.

  • Trash Disposal

As the number of citizens grow in urban areas the problem of trash disposal rises. The large quantity of garbage in the cities increases severe health issues. In most of the areas in cities there is no garbage disposal facility. When the landfills get full innumerable poisons leak around its surroundings, inviting diseases, like malaria, diarrhoea, typhoid, etc. Air travel also carries bacteria from one person to another spreading disease even more.

Ways to Keep Urbanization in Check

Here are some ways to keep Urbanization in check:

  • Employment

The chief reason of Urbanization is the migration of people from rural areas to urban areas in search of employment opportunities. Developing agricultural and rural industries will provide employment opportunities in rural areas.

  • Infrastructural Development in Rural Areas

Construction of roads, buildings, hospitals, parks, educational centres, etc. is vital for rural development. This will help rural people get better education and health care locally and also provide more job opportunities. Government should develop transport networks and related infrastructure.

  • Overall Development

Industrial and private sector development in rural areas is necessary. The focus of government should be nationwide Urbanization. Planning and investment in Urbanization of rural areas is essential.

  • Population Control

Over population is also a chief cause for Urbanization. Educating people about family planning and creating awareness among the rural communities is crucial.

  • Global Warming

One of the major problems of Urbanization rapidly rising is global warming. Use of renewable energy sources like solar energy, wind energy, hydropower should be encouraged. Investments in energy efficient industries and technologies will lead to clean economy. Reforestation instead of deforestation should be promoted.


Urbanization is on a rapid increase in our country. While it is good that our country is progressing and that more and more people want to lead a modern life, get better education and good employment opportunities, Urbanization can have negative repercussions as well. It is thus essential to control Urbanization.



Related Information:

Speech on Urbanization

Essay on Population

Essay on Unemployment

Essay on Deforestation

Essay on Pollution due to Urbanization