Urbanization is the process in which people migrate from backward and rural areas to urban areas often attributed to modernization and industrialization. The industrial revolution has given rise to Urbanization by creating job opportunities that induce people from rural areas to migrate to urban areas. With economic and social reforms demand for manpower has increased in urban areas.
Long and Short Essay on Urbanization
Essay 1 (250 Words)
Urbanization is the rise in the growth of people living in cities and towns. Urbanization also means the transformation of the society whereby the rural economy is being transformed into an advanced industrial economy. It is a highly accepted notion that urban areas as compared to rural areas have achieved better social, economic and political development. People from rural areas are induced to urban areas to take advantage of its advanced economic and social benefits.
Urbanization in India
Urbanization began to stimulate India after independence due to a rise in the development of the private sector. The population living in urban areas in India according to census 2001 was 28.53%, standing at 31.16% as per census 2011. A survey conducted by the UN state of the world population report in 2007, predicts 40.76% population in India is expected to live in urban areas by 2030 and will lead to the world’s urban population surge by 2050.
The main causes of Urbanization in India are the Industrial Revolution, Urbanization for economic development, economic opportunities and infrastructure facilities, development of private sectors, employment opportunities, land fragmentations and a better standard of living.
Like every coin has two sides, Urbanization has several positive as well as negative effects. The positive factors of Urbanization are a generation of employment opportunities, better and higher education, healthcare and medical facilities, housing, transport, new technology, social integration, electricity and a better standard of living. The negative effects of Urbanization are unemployment, overcrowding, global warming, traffic congestions and air pollution, poverty, shortage in supply of water, urban crime, trash disposal issues and so on. With the passing time, the negative impacts of Urbanization are increasing immensely.
Due to growth in population, industrialization and infrastructural development have become a necessity in rural areas. This will also raise employment opportunities in rural areas. Better education, healthcare, transport, sanitation facilities should be provided in rural areas.
Essay 2 (400 Words)
Urbanization is the process in which people leave rural areas and shift to urban areas either due to push or pull factors. Urbanization turns out to have positive effects when happens to a certain extent. The positive effects of the Urbanization include employment to the unemployed, better education, health care, and medical facilities, infrastructural development and access to new and advanced technologies. Urbanization is the process of development. However, over Urbanization in cities especially metro cities are resulting in adverse effects.
Positive Effects of Urbanization
Here is a detailed look at the positive effects of Urbanization:
- Efficiency: Urban areas are more efficient in providing resources than rural areas. Basic amenities such as clean water, housing and electricity are easily provided.
- Accessibility: Apart from the basic resources people in urban areas get easy access to health care and medical facilities, higher and better education, transport, entertainment, etc.
- Better Employment: People from rural areas often migrate to urban areas in search of better employment opportunities. Due to industrialization and commercialization, there are several job and business opportunities available in cities.
- Education: There are more schools, universities, and colleges in urban areas as compared to rural areas. Students migrate to urban areas for higher or better education with or without their families. Students can choose from a variety of career options available in cities for their bright future.
- Health care: There are various health care centers and medical facilities available in urban areas as compared to rural areas.
- Better social amalgamation: Urbanization promotes cultural and social fusion. People of various religions, castes, and gender work and socialize together breaking down the norms of social and cultural barriers.
Push and Pull Factors of Urbanization
There are various push factors and pull factors of Urbanization in India. Push factors are the factors due to which people have to leave rural areas and move to urban areas, for instance, unemployment, poverty, lack of infrastructure and limited resources. Pull factors are the factors that induced people to move to urban areas e.g. employment opportunities, better education, infrastructure development, commercialization, health, and medical care.
Urbanization also means the transformation of the society whereby rural culture is being transformed into modern urban culture. It is an alteration from traditional rural economies to industrial economies. Urbanization allows the overall urban population to enjoy the fruits of economic and social development. However, due to the increase in global warming due to Urbanization serious measures need to be taken for clean and green cities.
Essay 3 (500 Words)
The mass movement of people from rural areas to urban areas, i.e., cities and towns is called Urbanization, the process in which population in cities and towns increases. Higher the population, higher is the demand for public utilities like housing, sanitation water, health, education and so on. Urbanization is subjected to a range of elements such as urban planning, economics, sociology, and health care.
The concept of Urbanization is the increase in developing and developed society as people want to move to cities and towns to enjoy the benefits of social and economic development that include better education, health care, housing, better work opportunities, and sanitation.
Main Causes of Urbanization
Here are some of the main causes of Urbanization:
- Social benefits
- Employment opportunities
- Better Education
Here is a look at these factors in brief:
Industrialization is the concept of moving from the agricultural sector to the industrial sector. Industrialization creates economic growth and employment opportunities. With the industrial revolution in developing and developed countries, more and more people are moving from rural areas to urban areas for better employment opportunities.
Modern-day trade and commerce also result in Urbanization. In modern times, the development of marketing institutions and methods of trade has significantly contributed to Urbanization. There are better commercial opportunities and returns in urban areas than in rural areas. As a result, people are tempted to urban areas.
- Social Benefits
There are several social benefits in urban areas compared to rural areas like better education, better health care, transport, sanitation, and social status. Better recreational facilities are available such as playgrounds, theatres, parks, and clubs. Thus, people move to urban areas for enjoying the benefits of a modern lifestyle.
- Employment Opportunities
In rural areas, people mainly have to depend on the agricultural sector for their living whereas in the urban areas there are several employment opportunities in various sectors such as education, health care, transport, banking, media, television, and sports to name a few.
The agricultural sector mainly depends on monsoon. In times of natural calamities and drought, people have to migrate to urban areas in search of employment. With modern farming technology manpower needed in the farming sector is decreased leading to Urbanization.
Urban areas are characterized by new technology, infrastructural development, better health care, and medical facilities, liberalization and a better standard of living. This induces people from backward and rural areas to move to urban areas.
The management of administration is also responsible for Urbanization. The government has not maintained the rapidity with city growth in terms of infrastructure management or spatial.
- Better Education
As compared to rural areas there are better education facilities available in urban areas. The schools and colleges providing professional education are all located in urban areas. Thus young girls and boys either alone or with their families shift to urban areas to seek quality education.
Poverty and economic degradation are the major problems rising with Urbanization that need serious attention. Planning and investment in sustainable industries, eco-friendly infrastructure, and eco-friendly technology are essential. Encouraging the use of eco-friendly products and technology among the masses is vital. Creating more and more job opportunities and equality will help fight poverty.
Essay 4 (600 Words)
An increase in the volume of the total population in urban areas is called Urbanization. The rising population in urban areas creates a rise in the demand for basic amenities such as food, health, transport and shelter in such areas. This contributes to the development of land for housing, economic support institutions, commercialization, transport and so on.
Problems Due to Urbanization
Given below are the problems that we face due to Urbanization:
Overcrowding means overpopulation in urban areas due to migration. Cities, where the population is rising every single day, are getting overcrowded. This is the current situation in all the big cities in India. Mumbai, Chennai, Bangalore, Delhi are some of the examples of overcrowded cities.
When the population increases, the demand for housing also increases. The factors that are mainly responsible for the lack of housing facilities are lack of financial resources, poverty, and unemployment.
The chief cause of unemployment is overpopulation in the urban areas due to the migration of people from rural locations to these areas. The growth in economic opportunities fails to keep pace with growth in the urban population.
- Slum Areas
The unplanned growth in the urban areas is growing the spread of slums. The rise in slum settlements in India is a striking feature. Urbanization, poverty, and overpopulation, has increased the growth of slums as a high rate of land and property in urban areas are beyond the reach of rural migrants and urban poor.
The large use of vehicles for transport has increased traffic congestion making the movement slow and difficult.
- Urban Crime
With the rise in the urban population, there is a rise in poverty and unemployment. Due to poverty, there is a rise in crimes like theft, pickpocketing, cheating, and murders.
- Air Pollution
Urbanization is a major cause of air pollution and global warming. Industries release greenhouse gases causing a rise in the temperature of the earth and creating air pollution. Larger use of vehicles releases gases by fuel combustion. A large amount of garbage from landfills is burnt causing air pollution.
Water is the most important element of nature to sustain life. Due to overcrowding in the cities, the supply of water is falling short compared to the demand.
- Trash Disposal
As the number of citizens grows in urban areas the problem of trash disposal rises. The large quantity of garbage in the cities increases severe health issues. In most of the areas in cities, there is no garbage disposal facility. When the landfills get full innumerable poisons leak around its surroundings, inviting diseases, like malaria, diarrhea, typhoid, etc. Air travel also carries bacteria from one person to another spreading disease even more.
Ways to Keep Urbanization in Check
Here are some ways to keep Urbanization in check:
The chief reason for Urbanization is the migration of people from rural areas to urban areas in search of employment opportunities. Developing agricultural and rural industries will provide employment opportunities in rural areas.
- Infrastructural Development in Rural Areas
Construction of roads, buildings, hospitals, parks, educational centers, etc. is vital for rural development. This will help rural people get a better education and health care locally and also provide more job opportunities. The government should develop transport networks and related infrastructure.
- Overall Development
Industrial and private sector development in rural areas is necessary. The focus of the government should be nationwide Urbanization. Planning and investment in the Urbanization of rural areas are essential.
- Population Control
Overpopulation is also a chief cause of Urbanization. Educating people about family planning and creating awareness among rural communities is crucial.
- Global Warming
One of the major problems of Urbanization rapidly rising is global warming. The use of renewable energy sources like solar energy, wind energy, hydropower should be encouraged. Investments in energy-efficient industries and technologies will lead to a clean economy. Reforestation instead of deforestation should be promoted.
Urbanization is on a rapid increase in our country. While it is good that our country is progressing and that more and more people want to lead a modern life, get a better education and good employment opportunities, Urbanization can have negative repercussions as well. It is thus essential to control Urbanization.