The constitution of India became effective on 26th January 1950; though it was adopted by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November 1949. It was written by a drafting committee headed by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. It is the longest written constitution that defines the power, procedures, and responsibilities of the government institutions of India and gives a detailed account of the fundamental rights and duties of the citizens of our country. Go through these essays to know who was in the drafting committee of the constitution, which other constitutions are the Indian constitution inspired from, how long does it take to draft the Constitution and other facts of the Constitution of India.
Long and Short Essay on the Constitution of India
Essay 1 (250 words)
The Constitution of India is known to be the supreme document that gives a detailed account of what the citizens of India can and cannot do. It has set a standard that needs to be followed to ensure law and order in the society and also to help it develop and prosper.
Constitution Defines the Fundamental Rights and Duties of Indian Citizens
The fundamental rights and duties of the Indian citizens have clearly been defined in the Constitution of the country. The Fundamental Rights of the Indian citizens include the Right to Equality, Right to Freedom, Right to Freedom of Religion, Cultural and Educational Rights, Right against Exploitation, Right to Constitutional Remedies. These are the basic rights that all the citizens of the country are entitled to irrespective of their caste, color, creed or religion.
Some of the fundamental duties of an Indian citizen are to respect the constitution, honor the national flag and national anthem, protect the unity, preserve the heritage of the country, protect the integrity and sovereignty of India, promote the spirit of brotherhood, have compassion for living creatures, strive for excellence, protect public property and contribute his/ her bit in maintaining peace. These are also mentioned at length in the Indian Constitution.
Constitution Defines the Structure and Working of the Government
The structure and working of the government are also stated at length in the Constitution of India. The Constitution mentions that India has a parliamentary system of government. This system is present at the center as well as in the states. The Prime Minister and the Union Council of Ministers have the power to make all the major decisions. The President of India, on the other hand, has nominal powers.
Dr. B.R. Ambedkar along with his team of six members who were a part of the drafting committee came up with the Constitution of India. The Constitution was approved after several amendments. Many amendments have also been done after the enforcement of the Constitution.
Essay 2 (400 words)
The Constitution of India came into form on 26th November 1949. A special committee was formed to draft the Constitution that gives a detailed account of the practices that are deemed lawful and those deemed unlawful and are punishable. The Constitution was enforced on 26th January 1950. With the enforcement of the Constitution, our country came to be known as the Republic of India.
Special Drafting Committee for the Constitution of India
The task of drafting the Constitution of India was that of great responsibility. The Constituent Assembly set up a special drafting committee to further this work. There were seven members in the drafting committee. These included prominent Indian leaders namely, B.R. Ambedkar, B.L. Mitter, K.M. Munshi, N. Gopalaswami Ayengar, Alladi Krishnaswami Ayyar, DP and Mohammad Saadullah. Dr. B.R. Ambedkar headed the drafting committee. Ambedkar is referred to as the Father of the Indian Constitution. This is because it was under his guidance and supervision that this big draft came into form.
Indian Constitution – Inspired by Constitutions of Other Countries
The constitution of India drew inspiration from the constitutions of various other countries. Many of the concepts and acts included in our constitution are borrowed from the constitutions of countries such as France, Germany, Japan, Australia, the USA, Britain, Ireland, Russia, and South Africa.
The drafting committee of the Indian Constitution also referred to the Government of India Act 1858, the Government of India Act 1919 and 1935 and the Indian Independence Act 1947 to get an idea about the acts and features to be included in the Constitution. These previous acts helped the committee understand the condition and requirement of the citizens of the country. Our Constitution is thus often referred to as the bag of borrowings. It consisted of as many as 395 articles, 22 parts and 8 schedules at the time of its enactment. It was handwritten and calligraphed.
After putting in immense efforts when the drafting committee presented the final draft of the Constitution of India, it was suggested to make several amendments. The committee sat together to make more than 2000 amendments to get the Constitution approved. The members conducted several discussions to make appropriate amendments to getting approval. 284 members of the Constituent Assembly of India signed the Constitution to give their approval on the same. This was done two days before the enforcement of the constitution.
The Constitution of India is a massive piece of writing that includes a detailed account of the dos and don’ts for the Indian system. It has undergone around 100 amendments since it came into form.
Essay 3 (500 words)
Constitution of India – The Supreme Power of Country
The Constitution of India is rightly said to be the supreme power of the country. The laws, codes, rights, and duties mentioned in the Indian Constitution need to be followed strictly by the citizens of the country. The decisions made in the parliament and the Supreme Court of India are all based on the laws and codes defined in the Constitution of India. Parliament of India does not have the power to override the constitution.
Dr. B. R Ambedkar – The Chief Architect of the Indian Constitution
Dr. B. R. Ambedkar headed the drafting committee formed to write the Constitution of India. He was the chairman of this committee. He contributed immensely to the formation of the Constitution by giving several valuable inputs and thus came to be known as the chief architect of the Constitution of India. There were six other members in the drafting committee which was formed by the Constituent Assembly of India. These members worked under the guidance of Dr. Ambedkar.
Constitution of India replaced the Government of India Act
The Government of India Act, 1935 acted as the fundamental governing document of India until the formation of the Constitution of India. The Constituent Assembly of India adopted the Constitution of India in November 1949. Many of the articles of the Constitution came into force at that time. The Constitution was effectively enforced on 26th January 1950 which came to be known as the Indian Republic Day. The remaining articles became effective on this date. Our country which was until then called the Dominion of the British Crown thereafter came to be known as the Sovereign Democratic Republic of India.
Special Days to Celebrate the Constitution of India
The formation and enforcement of the Indian Constitution are celebrated at a grand scale on Republic Day each year. Republic Day is a national holiday in the country. A massive event is organized at India Gate, New Delhi on Republic Day to honor the Constitution of the country. The constitutional head of India, i.e., its president hoists national flag at Rajpath. The Prime Minister and President of India and several Chief Ministers of different states of the country are present at the event. Parades by school kids and armed forces are held on Rajpath. School children also perform dances and other cultural acts. Parade of beautiful tableau displaying the culture of various Indian states is also held during the event.
Several small events are organized at different offices and schools throughout the country to commemorate the Indian Constitution. Painting, essay, and music competitions are held in schools and colleges. Patriotic songs are sung and speeches about the Constitution of India are delivered.
National Constitution Day
In the year 2015, Indian Prime Minister, Narendra Modi, gave the suggestion to dedicate an exclusive day to our constitution. Since the Indian Constitution was adopted on 26th November 1949, this date was chosen to honor the constitution. 26th November is being celebrated as the National Constitution Day since 2015.
Many small and big events are organized in schools, colleges, and government institutions across India on this day. The importance of the Indian Constitution is emphasized during these events. Patriotic songs are sung and cultural activities are organized to celebrate the day.
The Constitution of India has been prepared with precision considering the interest of the common man as well as the overall interest of the country. It is a gift for the citizens of our country.
Essay 4 (600 words)
Enforced on 26th January 1950, the Constitution of India was prepared by a committee consisting of seven members headed by Dr. B. R. Ambedkar. It guides the citizens of India, the country’s governing bodies and other authorities to act in the right manner. It has played a significant role in maintaining peace and prosperity in the country.
Salient Features of the Constitution of India
Here are the top salient features of the constitution of India:
Longest Written Constitution
The Constitution of India is the longest written constitution in the world. It took almost three years to write this detailed constitution. It has a preamble, 448 articles, 25 groups, 12 schedules, and 5 appendices. It is much lengthier than the US Constitution that includes only 7 Articles.
The amalgamation of Rigidity and Flexibility
The Constitution of India is a mix of rigidity and flexibility. While it is the supreme power that needs to be followed diligently to maintain law and order in the country, the citizens can appeal to amend the provisions they deem outdated or stern. While certain provisions can be amended with some difficulty others are easy to amend. As many as 103 amendments have been done in the Constitution of our country since its enforcement.
The well-drafted Preamble of the Indian Constitution gives a detailed account of the philosophy of the constitution. It states that India is a Sovereign Socialist Secular Democratic Republic. It is a welfare state which puts its people first. It believes in equality, freedom, and justice for its people. While democratic socialism was followed right from the beginning, the term Socialism was added only in 1976.
India – A Secular State
The Constitution has declared India a secular state. India does not give special status to any religion. It provides its citizens with complete freedom to choose their religion. It condemns religious groups instigating people in the name of religion.
India – A Republic
The Constitution declares India to be a Republic. The country is not ruled by a nominated head or monarch. It has an elected head called the President. The President, elected indirectly by the people of the country, comes to power for a period of 5 years.
India – A Mix of Federalism and Unitarianism
The Constitution describes India as a federal structure with many unitary features. It is referred to as a Quasi-Federation or a Unitarian Federation. Just like a federation, India has divided power among the center and states. It has a dual administration system. It has a written, supreme constitution that needs to be followed religiously. It includes an independent judiciary embedded with the power to decide center-state disputes. At the same time, it has unitary features such as a strong common constitution, common election commission, and emergency provisions to name a few.
Fundamental Duties of Citizens
The Constitution of India clearly states the fundamental duties of its citizens. Some of these are to upload and protect the sovereignty, unity, and integrity of India, respect the national flag and the national anthem, preserve the rich heritage of the country, protect the natural environment, safeguard public property and treat everyone equally.
Directive Principles of the State Policy
The Directive Principles of the State Policy are also mentioned in the Constitution of India. These principles are basically the guidelines provided to the state to further socio-economic development aims via its policies.
The Constitution of India serves as a guiding light for its citizens. Everything is well-defined in the Indian Constitution. It has helped India attain the status of a Republic. Dr. B. R. Ambedkar and the members of the drafting committee of the Indian constitution have indeed done a commendable job for which they will always be remembered.