Corruption is an act of indulging in illegal practices in order to gain monetary or material benefits. Corruption compromises the genuine rights of someone else and is a huge deterrent to the growth of the nation. It also results in poverty, unemployment and lowers the quality of life of its people.
Short and Long Essay on Corruption
Measures to Control Corruption – Essay 1 (250 Words)
Corruption refers to a situation when to get a particular job that you rightfully deserve, done only by offering a favor to the person authorized for the act. Unfortunately, corruption is so prevalent that it is today being accepted by the people as an unavoidable truth.
Corruption Control Measures
There are several measures to control corruption, most of them affected by the government and law enforcement agencies. Some of the significant measures taken by the Government of India to check corruption are listed below-
- Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988
This Act aims to check corruption in government agencies and also the public sector businesses throughout India. It proposes the appointment of special judges and speedy trials among other measures.
- The Lokpal and Lokayuktas Act, 2013
Commonly known as the Lokpal Act, this Act proposes the appointment of a Lokpal to inquire into corruption allegations against important politicians and senior government officials such as the Prime Minister, Ministers of Cabinet, Members of Parliament, Chief Secretaries, Cabinet Secretaries, etc.
- Whistle Blowers Protection Act, 2011
This Act proposes to inquire about alleged wrongdoings in government departments, offices, and projects and penalize the corrupt officials and office-bearers. It also seeks to protect the person who exposes the corruption, in this case referred to as the ‘whistle blower’.
- Central Vigilance Commission
Central Vigilance Commission is a governmental body instituted in 1964 with the objective of addressing corruption in the government and concern departments. It functions as an autonomous body free from the control of any executive body.
There are several agencies established for the sole purpose of controlling corruption, yet the most potent weapon to fight corruption is a collective effort by the people to stop and raise voice against corrupt practices.
Factors of Corruption – Essay 2 (400 Words)
Corruption is a term used to describe illegal practices of favoritism and financial fraud, undertaken primarily with the objective of personal gains. Corruption is the most glaring problem that degrades the quality of life and also the trust of the public in the government machinery.
Factors Fuelling Corruption
There are several factors that act to promote corruption in some way or the other. Some of the most significant of such factors are described below.
- General Greed
This is primarily the most important factor responsible for corruption. Human beings are greedy about their possessions, money, and assets. For this very basic reason, people with authority in certain matters, tend to misuse the power to increase their own personal wealth. To satisfy their individual greed, several people may also conceive a devious plan together.
- Degrading Moral Values
We are living in a world that has been over-saturated with the competition. Everyone, not only wants to perform better than others, but also to be richer and have more assets. This desire to illogically compete probably emerges from shallow moral values. A child, who has always been told that success means cars, houses, and bank balance, will naturally tend to prefer corrupt practices to be successful and to be above others.
Often the employers don’t pay the employees enough to live a decent life with the justifiable standard of living. Most of the time employees are paid just enough to meet their daily requirement of food. The total amount paid to the employees is too low as compared to the company’s turnover, due to their collective effort. This in appropriation and unjust remuneration causes the employees to look for corrupt means to gain wealth or little more money at the least.
- Slack Laws and Poor Implementation
Laws are made to dissuade people from involving in illegal practices and to instill fear of punishment on them. What if the people find out loopholes in the system and using them to escape penalization? This is exactly what’s happening in case of corruption. First of all, nobody pays any heed to such practices, even the affected take it as a matter of fact. In case the corruption goes reported, there are several loose knots in the inquiry system to help the accused. Free of corruption charges despite being guilty only make the accused emerged more corrupt and confident.
Whatever the causes of corruption maybe, finally it affects the overall progress of the nation and the general well being of its people. To deal with corruption effectively, we must take cognizance of the factors that fuel it.
Methods and Types of Corruption – Essay 3 (600 Words)
Corruption refers to a dishonest act by an individual or a group, which compromises the rightful privileges of others. Corruption degrades the economic and infrastructural growth of a country and is by far the most potential hindrance to the well being of its people.
Methods of Corruption
There are two very common methods of corruption – bribery, embezzlement, and graft.
- Money, gifts and other benefits offered in exchange for an undue favor is termed as a bribe and the act on a whole is called ‘bribery’.
- There is a wide range of favors that could be offered as a bribe. For example, money, land, loans, company shares, employment, house, car, jewelry, etc.
- Embezzlement, on the other hand, is an act of misusing money or assets that the beholder is entrusted with. It is a kind of financial fraud undertaken by the individuals or groups of people who have been entrusted with the money/asset.
Graft is a kind of political corruption. The term is widely used in America to refer to misuse of the fund intended to the public, for personal benefits.
Types/Examples of Corruption
Below given are some of the examples of corruption in various departments/sectors related to our everyday life.
- Corruption in Public Sector
This includes corruption within the agencies responsible to implement public welfare and other development schemes by the government. This is by far the most prevalent type of corruption that affects the interests of a large number of general populations.
- Judicial Corruption
Judicial corruption refers to an act of misconduct by the judges, wherein they give a biased judgment, ignoring facts and evidence, in exchange of personal gains offered.
- Corruption in Education
Since the last couple of decades, the education department in some of the states of India was considered as the most corrupt department. The reasons to substantiate this claim were many – unfair and illegal appointments of teachers and staff, manipulation of results/grades, embezzlement of funds for students’ welfare schemes, etc. Corruption in education is also responsible for a rise in illiteracy and school dropout rates, mainly in the remote rural locations of the country.
- Corruption in Policing
Police have the responsibility of upholding the law and order situation and ensuring that every individual gets equal right to justice as enshrined in the constitution. Police are duty-bound and morally obliged to not discriminate against people on the basis of caste, creed, religion, age, gender or other divisions. Police largely function in a way that it should; though, sometimes serious charges of favoritism are leveled against its officers. It is very necessary to make the policing system independent from political interferences if it has to function effectively and in an unbiased way.
- Corruption in Healthcare
The healthcare system is an essential sector that impacts the lives of millions of common citizens. A corruption-free healthcare system only ensures that the benefits of healthcare reach the poorest of the poor and no one remains without medical help in case of any eventuality. Unfortunately, it is not all that good as it sounds. This sector has been a victim of fund embezzlement, wherein, funds allotted for infrastructure and facilities for the patients are siphoned off by corrupt officials, doctors and other office bearers for personal gains. Also, not all the free medicine and other facilities reach to the beneficiary at the ground level.
Corruption is the most potential impediment in the growth of a nation and the welfare of its people. It is not limited only to a specific sector and covers a wide range of offices, departments, sectors, etc. It could only be dealt with effectively by making people aware of its effects and also by implementing strict anti-corruption laws.