The biological wealth of the earth is the result of biodiversity development of about 400 million years. The continued loss of this biological wealth poses a grave threat to the survival of man. Biodiversity degradation is a matter of concern in the countries of the world. The countries of Asia, Central America, South America and Africa are rich in biodiversity where species of plants and animals of all kinds are found. The irony is that illiteracy, poverty, lack of scientific development, population explosion etc. are the reasons which are responsible for the biodiversity degradation in these countries.
No one knows accurately that how many species are there in the world, but according to an estimate, their number is between 3 million to 10 million. 1,435,662 species have been identified in the world. However, many species are still to be identified. The main species identified are 751,000 species of insects, 248,000 plants, 281,000 animals, 68,000 fungi, 30,000 protists, 26,000 algae, 4,800 bacteria and 1,000 viruses. About 27,000 species are going extinct every year due to the decay of ecosystems. Most of these are tropical small creatures. If the current rate of biodiversity degradation would have not been controlled, one-fourth of the world’s species will end by 2050.
Long and Short Essay on Loss of Biodiversity in English
Long and Short essay on Loss of Biodiversity is given here under in different word limits for the convenience of students and scholars.
These Loss of Biodiversity essays will enhance the knowledge of the learners about biodiversity and the man made reasons for its depletion. You will know in these Loss of Biodiversity essay that how many species of flora and fauna are extinct and how many are listed in endangered category.
These Essays on Loss of Biodiversity will be proved useful and helpful for school going children when they have stipulated the task of writing on biodiversity.
The language used here is very simple and convincible for the reach of every reader. You can also feel confident on this topic in discussion and debate along with competitive examinations.
Loss of Biodiversity Essay – 1 (200 Words)
The depletion of biological resources on earth is known as biodiversity degradation. The biological wealth of the earth is the result of biodiversity development of about 400 million years. The constant loss of this biological wealth has posed a serious threat to the existence of human.
Biodiversity degradation is a matter of concern in developing countries of the world. The countries of Asia, Central America, South America and Africa are rich in biodiversity where species of plants and animals are found. The irony is that illiteracy, poverty, lack of scientific development, population explosion etc. are the reasons which are responsible for the biodiversity degradation in these countries.
According to the Living Planet Report, 2018, by 1970 human activities have destroyed 60% of the Earth’s mammals, birds, fish and reptiles. Nearly half of the shallow water corals have been destroyed in the last 30 years. In spite of many laws at present, illegal trade or hunting of millions of foreign and wild birds and wildlife and their sale is done.
Along with climate change, biodiversity should also be considered as an equally important issue. The decline in biodiversity is not only an environmental issue, but it is also an economic, protective and moral issue. The biggest challenge and opportunity is related to the change in attitude towards development. Therefore, to save nature, all countries need to come on one platform for a global deal.
Loss of Biodiversity Essay – 2 (300 Words)
Extinction is an inexhaustible part of the nature, for example dinosaurs are extinct beings. But their end was due to the process of natural development in which more successful species replaced the less successful species. Today’s extinctions do not always fall into this category.
There have been five periods of mass extinctions on Earth; these happened in 4,400 lakh, 3,700 lakh, 2,500 lakh, 2,100 lakh and 650 lakh years ago. These were natural processes. Today, the activities of man contribute to the extinctions. This reduction is a threat to the future in terms of biodiversity as new species in the process of development are much slower than the current rate of extinction. It is an uneven race for growth and extinction.
It is estimated that the number of present-day organisms is one percent of the total number of living organisms on Earth today. In other words, 99 percent of life on earth has ended by ending its migration journey. Their farewells are attributed to meteorite collisions or changes in climate such as the ice age. Today we are in the sixth period of extinction where extinction is happening due to human activities.
Tropical rain forests are rich in biodiversity known as the ‘lung of the earth’ as they are the major emitters of oxygen and absorbers of carbon dioxide. They extend over 7 percent of the total geographical land of the Earth. Only 50 percent of the world’s recognized species are found in these forests. Since most of the rain forests are found in the developing countries of the world, population explosion is the main reason for the destruction of these forests. If conservation is not adopted on time, 90 percent of these habitats will be destroyed very soon, resulting in the loss of 15,000 to 50,000 species per year.
Loss of Biodiversity Essay – 3 (400 Words)
Mahatma Gandhi once told that the earth has everything for the need of the people but not for their greed. Human activities have done a lot of damage to the nature. Many species of flora and fauna have disappeared or on the verge of extinction. So there is a need to conserve it from further loss. Biodiversity conservation refers to the management of biological resources so that quality is maintained along with their widespread use.
The World Conservation Strategy has given the following suggestions for biodiversity conservation:
(1) There should be an effort to conserve species that are endangered.
(2) The need for proper planning and management to curb extinction.
(3) Food crops, fodder plants, cattle, animals and their wild relatives should be protected.
(4) The habitat of the wild species of each country should be identified and ensured their safety.
(5) International trade in wild plants and animals should be controlled.
There is a need to implement a time-bound program to save species of plants and animals and their habitat so that biodiversity conservation can be promoted. Therefore, the action plan of conservation must necessarily be in the following direction:
(i) To list the biological resources found in various areas of the country including islands.
(ii) Preservation of biodiversity through protected area like National Park, Biosphere Reserve, Sanctuary, Gene Fund etc.
(iii) Restoration of degraded habitat to natural state.
(iv) To protect the species from human pressure by growing it elsewhere.
(v) Rehabilitation of Tribal people displaced by becoming protected areas.
(vi) Characterization of threatened species with modern techniques of biotechnology and tissue augmentation.
(vii) Protection of species of domestic plants and animals for conservation of indigenous genetic diversity.
(viii) Revival of threatened species.
(ix) Prohibition of entry of plants of foreign origin without detailed investigation.
(x) Discourage planting of the same species over a wide area.
(xi) Restraint of over-exploitation of species by appropriate legislation.
(xii) Control over exploitation under the species trade contract.
(xiii) Sustainable use of genetic resources and protection by appropriate legislation.
(xiv) Promotion of traditional knowledge and skills that help in conservation.
Biodiversity not only fulfills the needs of our food, clothes, fuel, wood, medicines etc. but it also helps to maintain ecological balance and increase food production. Ultimately it can be said that biodiversity is the natural property of nature, so destroying biodiversity is destroying nature. Therefore, to save the nature from destruction, biodiversity conservation is the biggest need of the time.
Loss of Biodiversity Essay – 4 (500 Words)
Species damage is a serious cause of concern for human existence. It has been observed that 79 species of mammals, 44 species of birds, 15 species of reptiles and 3 species of amphibians are endangered.
Causes of Existential Threat or Damage
There may be the following three causes of existential threat or damage:
- Direct methods: deforestation, hunting, poaching, commercial exploitation.
- Indirect method: loss of natural habitats or conversion of foreign species into them, pollution etc.
- Natural Causes: Climate Change.
Out of these, habitat destruction and over exploitation are the main reasons but there are a lot of other factors that also leaves their impact on the biodiversity.
Destruction of Habitats: Deforestation and forest fires, wet-lands stuffing and drainage of water, use of natural areas for agriculture or industry, human settlements, mining, construction and other developmental projects are the cause of habitat destruction. In this way the natural habitats of the organisms have been changed or destroyed. Due to these changes, the species either die or killed. In addition to the direct damage of the species during development related activities, the new environment is unsuitable for the survival of the species. Over-exploitation reduces the population size of the species and forces them to go extinct.
Penetration of Foreign Species: Dispersal of seeds is done by nature or certain animals. When these species reach new places, they breed very fast due to lack of enemies there and often eliminate the native species which are already present here. Some examples are:
- Parthinium hysterophorus (congress grass-a tropical American weed) has spread to empty areas of India’s cities, towns and villages, erasing local plants and the animals that depend on them.
- Nile perch, an exotic predatory fish whose entry into Lake Victoria (Southern Africa) caused the entire ecosystem of the lake to suffer.
- The hyacinth blocks the lakes and river banks and creates a threat to the existence of many aquatic species.
- The lentana camera (an American weed) has occupied many forest lands in different parts of India and this has resulted in the destruction of native grass species.
Pollution: Forests are destroyed due to air pollution and acid rain. Fish and other aquatic plants and animals die due to water pollution. Toxic and hazardous substances are discharged into the waterways, thus destroying aquatic life. Coastal birds, plants and other marine animals die due to oil spills in the sea. Wildlife gets trapped in plastic waste. It can be easily seen that pollution is a big threat to biodiversity.
Population Growth and Poverty: More than six billion people live on Earth. All these people rely on natural resources to meet their basic requirements of shelter, food, clothes, water and medicines. These scarcely available resources are exploited by affluent people, out of need or out of greed, further damaging biodiversity.
There are many other reasons too which are increasing the rate of the loss in biodiversity but the activities of human being are much responsible for this loss. Human have to make certain efforts to decrease in pollution so that the Earth would become safe from the danger of extinction of the species and can survive and prosper well.
Long Essay on Loss of Biodiversity – 5 (600 Words)
Biological diversity is a dynamic concept. It varies with time and place. If a species disappears completely from the earth and no other animal is found, then it is said to be extinction of that living species. The studies reveal that due to human interference the species of flora and fauna are getting depleted. Around 60,000 species of plants and 2,000 species of animals are on the verge of extinction all over the world. Although most of these species are of plants, some species are also of animals.
Reasons for the Loss of Biodiversity
The following are the reasons for the decline of biological diversity:
- Natural Causes: There are many natural hazards occur time to time and its damage can be seen on all the life forms. These natural calamities may be of different kinds. Some of them are mentioned here under:
- Volcanic eruptions,
- Continental displacement,
- Climate change,
- Flood and Drought,
- Anthropogenic Causes:
- Destruction of natural habitat: Due to the destruction of natural habitats by human, many wild animals are entering rural and urban settlements and are harming human society, killing many people or killed by people.
- Over Exploitation of resources: The ecological balance is changing with the poaching of wild animals. The number of rhinoceros, elephants, members of cat family etc. is being hunted illegally. Hunting small and big fish in the seas and oceans is unbalancing the aquatic ecosystem.
- Diffusion of Exotic Species: Transmission of animals and birds of foreign origin is also decreasing biological diversity. Parthinium hysterophorus (Carrot grass) is also causing great damage to crops.
- Environmental Pollution: Soil, water, air and noise pollution also have adverse effects on animals, birds, animals and plants. The amount of pollution in the environment increases due to increasing population and consumerism, which leads to the loss of biological diversity.
- Global Warming: In the last 100 years, and especially after the Second World War, a serious problem of global warming has arisen. Global warming is having a bad impact on the ecological system and biological diversity. Due to the rise in temperature in the oceans, the disease is becoming an epidemic in coral bleaching.
- Diseases and Epidemics: The spread of disease in animals, birds and plants also leads due to loss of biological diversity. In the Kashmir valley, many poplar trees and Sal and teak trees on the Chhotanagpur plateau have destroyed many forests and biological diversity is changing.
- Tourism and Poaching: Ecology is also suffering a huge loss from the tourism industry. When rich people go to the mountains etc. as tourists, they carelessly damage ecosystems and hunting of wild animals also leads to loss of biological diversity.
- Trade in Wild Species: Many traders selling pets, dogs, cats, sparrows, fish, etc. also decrease the biological diversity. They illegally kill the animals for their individual profit. The skin, bones, blood and other parts are used in making various kinds of medicines and vaccines.
In addition to the above reasons, biodiversity degradation is also caused by:
- population growth,
- ignorance of traditional knowledge,
- failure of system,
- Due to negligence etc.
The axis of development of human civilization is biodiversity under threat mainly due to habitat destruction, habitat fragmentation, environmental pollution, invasion of flora of foreign origin, over exploitation, wildlife hunting, deforestation, overgrazing, disease etc. is. Therefore, conservation of biodiversity is the greatest need of the times today for ecological balance, to meet the various needs of human beings and to get rid of natural disasters such as floods, droughts, landslides etc. This means that at present we are facing the crisis of biodiversity depletion; its conservation should be on priority basis. In order to balance the biological diversity, it becomes mandatory to solve the above problems.