Terrorist groups aim to create panic amid people. They intend to see people living in constant fear and for this purpose they carry out various big and small terrorist activities from time to time. There are around 100 terrorist cells operating in India and they have succeeded in creating an atmosphere of tension in the country. Numerous terrorist activities have been carried out by these terrorist groups. India has also been hit by terrorist acts done by its neighbouring countries mainly Pakistan.
Long and Short Terrorism in India Essay in English
Chief Terrorist Groups Operating in India
Here are some of the chief terrorist groups operating in India:
- Jaish–e-Muhammad: This is a Pakistan based terrorist group operating in Jammu and Kashmir. It aims to occupy Jammu and Kashmir and has instigated several terrorist attacks in the valley to further their aim.
- Lashkar-e-Taiba (Let): This is an Islamist militant group which is operating in Pakistan and even in India’s Jammu and Kashmir region. It is said to be funded by Pakistan and is responsible for carrying out many massive terrorist attacks in India.
- Maoist: This terrorist group was created by merger of Naxalite groups after talks between leftist militants and Indian government broke in the year 2004.
- United Liberation Front of Assam (ULFA): This terrorist group is responsible for carrying out various terrorist activities in the Indian state of Assam.
The irony is that even though these terrorist groups take onus of the bomb blasts and other terrorist activities carried out by them, most of the times the government is not able to reach them and take the required action against them.
Causes of Terrorism in India
There are a number of causes of the wide spread terrorism in India. There are mainly four types of terrorism in India. This includes Religious Terrorism, Narco Terrorism, Left Wing Terrorism and Ethno-Nationalist Terrorism. While terrorists belonging to different terrorist cells may have come together for different causes, the main aim of all the terrorist cells running under them are same and that is to ensure widespread fear and panic among the general public.
Here are the main causes of terrorism in India:
India is a land of diverse religions. While people belonging to different religions largely live with peace and harmony in the country there are many religious extremists that aim to create a rift between them. These groups boast about the teachings of their religion and try to prove that it is superior to the others. Several violent movements carried out by these groups in the past have disrupted the peace and harmony of the country. Numerous people have been injured and several others have been killed in such outbreaks.
This type of terrorism is provoked by the extremist groups. It occurs when major part of the population of a state expresses the desire to break away and form their own separate state/ country. The Khalistan Movement in Punjab is one of the examples of this type of terrorism. The beautiful Indian state of Kashmir is also suffering because of this type of terrorism as certain Kashmiri Islamic groups want Kashmir to become a part of Pakistan. Similarly, Nagaland, Tripura, Assam and Tamil Nadu have also suffered due to this type of terrorism.
- Political Scenario
Dissatisfied with the political system of the country, certain terrorist groups are formed to threaten the government. Left wing extremists in India, known as Naxalites, have been invoked because of this. The Naxalites are highly disappointed with the political system in the country. They have carried out several terrorist attacks in the past and aim to overthrow the government with an armed revolution. They intend to bring their own kind of government.
- Socio-Economic Disparity
India is known for its socio-economic disparity. The rich in the country are getting richer and the poor are getting poorer day by day. This creates a sense of disparity among the poor class who join terrorist cells to destroy the upper class people. They mostly carry out terrorist attacks in posh localities and target celebrities and people in power.
Effects of Terrorism in India
Terrorism has caused a widespread impact on the country. Here is a look at the effects of terrorism in India:
- Panic among People
Terrorism in India has created panic among the general public. Every now and then there is a blast, firing or some other sort of terrorist activity in the country. Due to this, several people die untimely and many others are left handicapped for the rest of their lives. Each of these attacks causes an atmosphere of stress and anxiety among the general public. People fear to go out of their houses days after such attacks.
- Effect on Tourism Industry
People fear visiting the places that are prone to terrorist attacks. The tourism industry in India has suffered a great deal owing to the terrorist activities carried out by different terrorist groups within the country as well as those outside that threaten the peace of the country. The tourism industry particularly sees a deep for several months after the terrorist attacks.
- Foreign Investment
Foreign investors think twice before investing in India and other nations prone to terrorism. This is because the risk involved is quite high. They look for safer alternatives. Indian businesses have suffered a great deal owing to this.
- Damaged Economy
Terrorism has had an adverse effect on India’s economy. Many Indian cities have been hit by major terrorist attacks that have led to a loss of property and businesses. The resurrection cost involved is quite high in such cases. The country’s wealth that can be used in productive tasks is invested in replenishing the loss caused by terrorist attacks. Besides, the dip in the tourism industry, the reluctance of foreign investors to invest in India and the rise in the rates of international trade that are all a result of terrorism in India, have had a major negative impact on the country’s economy.
- Brain Drain
Many talented youths in India do not want to live in the country anymore owing to the low quality of life and uncertainties caused by terrorism. They relocate to developed nations such as the United States, Canada and United Kingdom that are less prone to terrorist attacks and financially strong. Thus, the terrorist activities have also resulted in brain drain.
Terrorism is not just limited to India but is a global problem. The reasons for the formation of terrorist groups in different countries remain more or less the same as that in India. The reasons mainly include socio-economic disparity, discrimination/ alienation, dissatisfaction with the functioning of the ruling party, religious extremism and ethno nationalism.
Almost every country in this world is suffering from one or the other problems mentioned above and this has led to the formation of various terrorist cells within these countries. These terrorist cells carry out terrorist attacks within the country from time to time to create an atmosphere of fear among the general public. Rivalry among different countries gives rise to transnational terrorism. This rivalry or feeling of hatred may be caused due to difference in religious sentiments, economic disparity, lack of aid provided to developing nations and more. Attacks on India by Pakistan and Pakistan’s attack on various other nations are a clear example of transnational terrorism.
Countries such as Pakistan, Syria, India, Russia, Egypt, Iraq, Libya, Nigeria, Israel, Philippines, Colombia, Somalia, Thailand, Turkey, Yemen and Nepal have been hit by numerous terrorist attacks in the past two decades. They have suffered from both domestic as well as transnational attacks. The 9/11 incident that happened in the United States has been one of the most heinous and major terrorist attacks on a first world country.
Terrorist Attacks in India
India has seen several terrorist attacks that have created major fear among the public and have caused mass destruction. Here are some of the major terrorist attacks that hit India in the last few years:
- 1991 Punjab Killings
- 1993 Bombay Bomb Blasts
- 1993 RSS Bombing in Chennai
- 2000 Church Bombing
- 2000 Red Fort Terrorist Attack
- 2001 Indian Parliament Attack
- 2002 Mumbai Bus Bombing
- 2002 Attack on Akshardham Temple
- 2003 Mumbai Bombing
- 2004 Dhemaji School Bombing in Assam
- 2005 Delhi Bombings
- 2005 Indian Institute of Science Shooting
- 2006 Varanasi Bombings
- 2006 Mumbai Train Bombings
- 2006 Malegaon Bombings
- 2007 Samjhauta Express Bombings
- 2007 Mecca Masjid Bombing
- 2007 Hyderabad Bombing
- 2007 Ajmer Dargah Bombing
- 2008 Jaipur Bombings
- 2008 Bangalore Serial Blasts
- 2008 Ahmedabad Bombings
- 2008 Delhi Bombings
- 2008 Mumbai Attacks
- 2010 Pune Bombing
- 2010 Varanasi Bombing
- 2011 Mumbai Bombing
- 2011 Delhi Bombing
- 2012 Pune Bombing
- 2013 Hyderabad Blasts
- 2013 Srinagar Attack
- 2013 Bodh Gaya Bombings
- 2013 Patna Bombings
- 2014 Chhattisgarh Attack
- 2014 Jharkhand Blast
- 2014 Chennai Train Bombing
- 2014 Assam Violence
- 2014 Church Street Bomb Blast, Bangalore
- 2015 Jammu Attack
- 2015 Gurdaspur Attack
- 2015 Pathankot Attack
- 2016 Uri Attack
- 2016 Baramulla Attack
- 2017 Bhopal Ujjain Passenger Train Bombing
- 2017 Amarnath Yatra Attack
- 2018 Sukma Attack
Agencies Fighting Terrorism in India
Many police, intelligence and military organizations in India have formed special agencies to fight terrorism in the country.
- Anti Terrorism Squad (ATS)
Anti Terrorism Squad (ATS) operates in the Indian states of Maharashtra, Gujarat, Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, Bihar and Rajasthan. It is a special police force that has stopped many terrorist attacks in India. It has adopted various special tactics to bar terrorism.
- Research and Analysis Wing (RAW)
Established in the year 1968, RAW is the foreign intelligence agency of India. It is involved in neutralising terror elements that are a threat to the country, promoting counter proliferation and guarding India’s nuclear programme.
- National Investigation Agency (NIA)
This agency has been set up by the Government of India to fight terrorism in the country. It came into being after the unfortunate 2008 Mumbai terror attacks. It has been given the right to take action against terrorist groups/ activities occurring in any Indian state without seeking any special permission from the states.
India has adversely been affected by terrorism. It is sad to see thousands of innocent lives gone because of terrorist attacks. Despite the formation of anti-terrorist agencies and their high end strategies, the terrorist groups still succeed in carrying out terrorist activities.
The Indian government’s response to terrorist attacks has never been as stern as it should be. It lacks proper strategic response to the terrorist activities and this encourages the terrorist cells to carry out such activities fearlessly.