River and pond water are used by various production units to prevent excessive heat effect of various reactors. This water, which has been heated as a result of the cooling process, is then dumped into the water sources. Such hot water increases the temperature of the water of the water sources, thereby polluting the water. In addition to industries, thermal pollution is also caused by steam or nuclear powered power generating plants. Adequate natural water is used in energy plants to cool the liquefiers.

Water temperature increases with thermal pollution causing a decrease in aqueous oxygen. Therefore water pollution seriously affects aquatic species. Thermal pollution has a special effect on water organisms.

Long and Short Essay on Thermal Pollution in English

Some long and short Essay on Thermal Pollution is given below in various word limits that will help the readers, especially the students for their academic requirement and assignments.

In these Thermal Pollution Essay you will find out the detail of thermal pollution and its causes and consequences.

These essays can be used in essay writing, debates and discussions and may be helpful for competitive examinations. Hoping that the reader would get benefited from the essays, let us explore.

Thermal Pollution Essay 1 – (200 Words)

Any type of pollution that changes the natural temperature of water on an undesirable scale is called thermal pollution. One of the common causes of thermal pollution is the use of cold water by power plants and industrial manufacturers. When the water used for cooling returns to its natural environment, its temperature is high. Due to the increase in temperature, the amount of dissolved oxygen in the water starts to decrease, due to which the conditions for life become unfavorable.

Usually coal is burnt to generate thermal energy from which the generated energy is converted into electrical energy but in this process when coal is burnt, many gases are released which contaminates the atmosphere. These gases mainly include carbon monoxide, sulphur di-oxide, nitrogen oxide, hydrocarbons, and fly ash, etc. As their concentration increases in the atmosphere, thermal pollution spreads in the atmosphere.

In addition, if the power plant that produces electricity is shut down suddenly, then the water temperature decreases simultaneously. This is called thermal shock. Generally, fishes are unable to tolerate this. This adversely affects the aquatic animals, many organisms are eliminated and it becomes fatal for fish and other creatures. The ash emanating from its chimney, which is harmful due to overheating and where it rains, destroys trees and plants and crops.


Thermal Pollution Essay 2 – (300 Words)

In many forms of pollution, thermal pollution intensifies natural outbreaks such as floods, droughts and famines. It also causes dangerous rise in sea level. Continuous increase in heat can cause glaciers to melt, causing great harm to organisms. The potential for climate change increases with thermal pollution which has severe side effects on agricultural production.

Thermal pollution is the process of any type of pollution that changes the natural temperature of water in a broad way. The main cause of thermal pollution is due to the use of coolant water by power plants and industrial manufacturers. There is a decrease in the amount of oxygen that also affects the ecological system. Radioactive materials are also the major pollutants.


Another cause of thermal pollution is caused by the reservoirs draining too much cold water into hot rivers. This has an effect on the production of fishes (especially eggs and larvae). Due to excess temperature, the amount of soluble oxygen (Dissolved Oxygen) is deficient in water. Lack of oxygen content can cause damage to fishes, amphibians, and copepods. Thermal pollution also affects the metabolic processes of water creatures.

A change in the metabolic process can result in a decrease in food content, which can result in a decrease in the population at a very rapid pace. Changes in the environment can also result in organisms moving from one place to another where the environment is adaptable; similarly those fish can also change their place, which may be somewhere else to live only in warm water.

Environmental pollution is engulfing the entire world, so it remains a global concern. Pollution means – ‘contamination of air, water, soil etc. with unwanted liquids’, which has a direct adverse effect on living organisms and also indirect effects on ecosystems. In today’s context, thermal or thermal pollution is a real problem in modern industrial society.


Thermal Pollution Essay 3 – (400 Words)


You may have noticed that factories and industries use water from various natural sources to cool or heat large boilers and machines. In doing so, that water also becomes very hot or cold and then that water is again drained into natural sources.

Draining water that is more or less hot than the normal temperature into natural water-bodies leaves bad effect on the ecosystem; that changes the oxygen level in the atmosphere. In this way, the sudden change in the water temperature of natural water sources like lakes, ponds, wells, rivers and oceans etc. by any reason is called thermal pollution.


Harmful Effects of Thermal Pollution

Thermal pollution is very dangerous like other pollutions. Some of the harmful effects of thermal pollution can be:

  1. The release of hot water into natural aquatic sources increases their average temperature, affecting the aquatic life there.
  2. Due to high temperature the amount of oxygen dissolved in water decreases, which starts the process of anaerobic respiration. Due to which the number of bacteria starts increasing and thus aquatic life is affected.
  3. Due to hot water, not only bacteria but also blue-green moss and many other types of mosses, increase. In this way, due to moss cover, different types of toxic substances in the water also start to grow, due to which the quality of water gets deteriorated.
  4. After being used by factories etc., releasing hot water again in aquatic sources leads to an unforeseen sharp rise in water temperature. In this way, the sudden increase in water temperature causes excessive loss of eggs, small insects etc. of aquatic organisms. While low temperature slows down the lifestyle of organisms, high temperature causes abnormal upsurge in the lifestyle of organisms.
  5. Increased metabolic rate of aquatic organism changes as well as their physical activities due to rapidly changing water temperature. In this way, it also damages the food chain and affects organisms that are not directly related to water.


Actually, thermal pollution is not an unintentional problem. The need is to understand it and find new ways of dealing with it. Although human being is not directly affected by this pollution, but its indirect effect is a cause of worry and concern. Therefore, there is a need to become sensitive to nature and natural resources and to conserve them.

Apart from the development of technical measures, the framework of some other strong rules is also very important. The laws in this regard should be so effective that no factory can leave its used water directly in water sources. Only then this problem can be dealt with.


Thermal Pollution Essay 4 – (500 Words)


Environmental pollution is engulfing the entire world, so it remains a global concern. Pollution means – ‘contamination of air, water, soil etc. with unwanted liquids’, which has a direct adverse effect on living organisms and also indirect effects on ecosystems. In today’s context, thermal or thermal pollution is a real problem in modern industrial society.

What is Thermal Pollution?

Thermal pollution is a process that reduces the quality of water and increases its ambient temperature that leads to an increase in global temperature. This is due to the use of coolant water by various industrial plants such as thermal, nuclear, coal factories, oil-field generators, factories and mills.

In other words, after the use of coolant water by power plants and industrial manufacturers, when this water re-enters the natural environment, its temperature is higher, due to the change in temperature, the amount of oxygen is reduced due to which the ecology has a bad effect.

What are the Sources of Thermal Pollution?

  • Nuclear power plants.
  • Coal fired power plant.
  • Industrial wastes.
  • Domestic sewage.
  • Hydro-electric power plants.
  • Thermal Power Plants.

Harmful Effects of Thermal Pollution

The harmful effects of thermal or thermal pollution are discussed below:

  1. Dissolved oxygen reduction: Pollutants released from various industrial plants, such as thermal, nuclear, coal factories, oilfield generators, factories and mills; reduce oxygen concentration with increasing water temperature. Fish in the water require 6ppm (per million parts) to survive which cannot tolerate high water temperatures and may fall to the brink of extinction.
  2. Changes in the properties of water: Due to change in the temperature of water the physical and chemical property of water changes that effect the aquatic flora and fauna. The increase in temperature affects the life of the marine animals and the vegetation started to deplete from that area. In hot water many aquatic animals are on the verge of extinction.
  3. Increased toxicity: The concentration of the pollutant is a factor in increasing the temperature of the water, which increases the toxicity of poison present in the water that can increase the mortality of aquatic life.
  4. Interruption of biological activities: Temperature change disrupts the entire aquatic ecosystem because changes in temperature can alter biological processes such as respiratory rate, digestion, excretion, and the growth of an aquatic organism.
  5. Biological organism damage: Aquatic organisms such as fish, plankton, eggs, larvae, algae, and protozoa, are highly susceptible to death due to sudden temperature changes.

How can thermal or thermal pollution be prevented?

The following measures can be taken to prevent or control high temperatures due to thermal or thermal pollution:

  1. Industrial immersed thermal water can be cooled by technology, convection and radiation in man-made reservoirs before being directly immersed into any water sources.
  2. Regeneration of a process by which domestic or industrial excess heat is again reduced.


Therefore, we can say that any type of pollution can directly or indirectly affect humans because loss of biodiversity causes changes affecting all aspects of the environment. The thermal pollution is a cause of worry and great concern for the people all over the world.


Thermal Pollution Essay 5 – (600 Words)


Thermal pollution is the degradation of water quality from any process that raises the ambient temperature. The solubility of oxygen in water decreases as the temperature is warmer and thereby increases the metabolism of marine animals. Tropical marine animals are generally survive at temperature of 20°C to 30°C, and most sponges, mollusks, and crustaceans die at temperature above 37°C.

Sources of Thermal Pollution

  1. Industrial effluents:

A common cause of thermal pollution is caused by power plants and industrial manufacturers using water as a coolant. The main industries are-

  • Hydro-electric power plants,
  • Coal-fired power plants,
  • Nuclear power plants,
  • Industrial waste from the power, textile, paper and pulp industries.
  1. Urban runoff

Urban runoff can have a significant impact on small water sources, as water flows through parking lots, roads and walkways for passers-by.

  1. Domestic sewage

Municipal sewage also typically has high temperatures that flow through drains into the river and the Canals.

Effects of Thermal Pollution

Some of the main effects of thermal pollution are –

  1. Increased temperature usually decreases the level of oxygen dissolved in water. A decrease in dissolved oxygen levels can harm aquatic animals such as fish and amphibians.
  2. As the enzyme activity of aquatic animals in thermal pollution increases, the rate of metabolism increases, as a result fossils start consuming more food in a short time, which they would not have done if the environment had not changed. Due to changes in the metabolic process, food is getting depleted. In Australia, where many rivers have warm temperatures, indigenous fish species have been wiped out; macro invertebrates have also changed considerably and are losing their potency.
  3. There may be several reasons for the increased metabolic rate. Similarly, those fish can also change their living areas and move to that places, which is suitable for their living. In such a situation, it creates competition for the resources available in a small difference, more adapted bacteria benefit from them. Because of this, there is a compromise in the chain of food available in the old and new environment. This condition can reduce biological variation.
  4. Lack of unnaturally cold water in reservoirs can impact fish life. That reduces the fauna of rivers, and river productivity.
  5. Physical and Chemical properties of water is affected by toxicity and temperature increase.
  6. Many activities such as interference with breeding, in fishes, nesting, cropping, hatching, migration and breeding etc. that depends on a favourable temperature. In such a situation, eggs are destroyed due to lack of proper temperature.
  7. Increased vulnerability to disease leads to high temperature of many pathogenic microorganisms. A change in water temperature causes bacterial disease in fish.
  8. Thermal pollution allows invasion of organisms that are highly destructive.
  9. Many planktons, small fish and insect larvae come into the contact with cool water, which is destroyed due to thermal pressures.


There are many ways to reduce thermal pollution. If hot water comes out of the condenser, heat pollution can be controlled by first passing it through a cooling pond or cooling tower. Hot water is pumped into the pond from one side and cold water is drawn from the other side. The heat escapes from the pond and disintegrates into the atmosphere. This heat is dispersed in the air and then the water can be released into the river or reused for cooling in the plant itself. The use of a cooling column is another measure. Such structures occupy less space than the pond. Most of the heat here is transferred by evaporation.



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