An earthquake occurs due to disturbance in the tectonic plates that lie under the surface of Earth. Earthquakes may be brief and mild or big and destructive. Our planet has suffered several severe and mild earthquakes for centuries. Earthquakes are mostly brief but can cause mass destruction within seconds. People around the world have suffered immensely due to earthquakes in the past. An earthquake under a sea surface can also trigger a Tsunami which causes large scale destruction along the shoreline.
Long and Short Essay on Earthquake
Essay on Earthquakes and Volcanoes (250 words)
Earthquakes and volcanoes are two natural calamities that occur due to the changes in the surface of Earth. Man has little or just no role in bringing about these natural disasters. Earthquakes and volcanoes are said to be interrelated. It has been observed that volcanic regions are more prone to earthquakes that often serve as a warning sign of an impending volcano.
Earthquake is basically the shaking of the Earth. Earthquakes either occur due to the movement of tectonic plates under the Earth’s surface or because of the movement of magma in volcanoes. The ones caused due to magma movements may be followed by volcanic eruptions. Earthquakes can be weak as well as violent. While the weak volcanoes are hardly felt, the violent ones can result in the devastation of big buildings and huge loss of life. Numerous earthquakes have occurred in different parts of the world causing severe destruction.
The volcano is the eruption of hot lava from the surface of Earth. It occurs when the Earth’s crust ruptures. Hot lava, poisonous gases, and volcanic ash come out by way of volcanic eruptions and can cause vast destruction. Different types of volcanoes include super volcanoes, sub-glacial volcanoes, underwater volcanoes, and mud volcanoes.
What is Volcanic Earthquake?
The volcanic earthquake also known as the volcano-tectonic earthquake is caused due to the movement of magma. This movement exerts pressure and causes changes in the rock around the magma and this eventually leads to the volcanic earthquake. These earthquakes are known to cause major destruction that may include ground deformation, uprooting of buildings and ground cracks.
Both earthquakes and volcanoes may result in a severe loss for mankind. While scientists try their best to predict both of these, they haven’t been successful in determining the time and date for these natural disasters. People living in earthquake and volcano prone areas must stay vigilant and be prepared to face these and should act calmly and wisely if such a problem occurs.
Essay on Types, Causes, and Effects of Earthquake (400 words)
Earthquakes are caused due to the movement of magnum or tectonic plates under the Earth’s surface. They may vary in severity, time and other factors. Earthquakes have been classified into various categories. The effect they cause varies based on their type.
Types of Earthquake
There are different types of earthquakes that have been experienced on our planet. Here is a look at the main types of earthquakes:
- Tectonic Earthquake
A tectonic earthquake is an outcome of the breakage of Earth’s crust because of exertion of pressure on rocks and tectonic plates.
This is often a mild earthquake that takes place in the same area that has been hit by a severe earthquake a few hours, days or weeks before.
A small earthquake that takes place before a severe earthquake is referred to as a foreshock.
- Explosion Earthquake
This type of earthquake occurs because of the explosion of a chemical and nuclear device.
- Volcanic Earthquake
It is an earthquake that occurs due to the combination of tectonic forces and volcanic activities.
- Collapse Earthquake
This type of earthquake is caused due to the explosion of rocks. These are generally mild earthquakes that occur due to mining activities.
- Submarine Earthquake
It is an earthquake that takes place underwater particularly at the bottom of an ocean. It is commonly referred to as Tsunami.
Causes of Earthquake
An earthquake basically is an outcome of the movements of tectonic plates beneath the Earth’s surface. However, these are also caused due to certain other reasons. These are mostly natural reasons however sometimes these can even be man-made. Given below are the various causes of earthquakes:
- Volcanic Eruptions
Volcanic eruptions are a common cause of the earthquake. Areas that are faced with frequent volcanic activities are more prone to earthquakes.
- Geological Fault
It occurs because of the displacement of plates from their original position. As the rocks move alongside these planes, it brings about tectonic earthquakes.
- Human Activities
Man is known to influence various natural activities and earthquakes are no exception. The nuclear bombing, the building of dams and mining are few such human activities that can cause an earthquake.
Effects of Earthquake
Mild earthquakes are harmless however the violent ones can cause mass destruction. Numerous lives are lost, several people are injured and many houses and other buildings are devastated during this natural calamity.
Earthquake is a dangerous natural calamity that has caused huge damage in various parts of the world. It cannot be avoided as the scientists are not able to predict its occurrence accurately.
Essay on Earthquake Management (500 words)
Earthquake is a natural calamity that is capable of causing vast destruction and there is no way to stop it from occurring. Our planet has been hit by a number of strong earthquakes of different magnitudes that have led to the loss of many innocent lives and heavy damage to the property. A need for disaster management for the earthquake was felt owing to the huge and frequent damage they had been causing around the world.
The seismic department studies earthquakes. The department monitors the environment and the activities that occur under the Earth’s surface in an attempt to predict earthquakes and their severity. However, it has largely failed in predicting the exact date and time of occurrence of the earthquake.
Since it is almost impossible to forecast and avoid the occurrence of earthquakes, we must prepare ourselves to lower the losses caused by these. Japan, for instance, is highly prone to earthquakes. However, their preparedness to handle this natural calamity ensures little or no damage to property and life in the country.
The recent earthquakes that jolted India have shown how under-prepared we are to handle this natural calamity. A need to build an environment that is earthquake resistant has been felt. Though this cannot be full-proof however efforts in this direction can certainly help bring down the magnitude of losses.
Extensive research is going on in this direction. Builders are being encouraged to build earthquake resistant structures. Special degree in Earthquake Engineering is being imparted to prepare our future generations to tackle this natural disaster smartly. Structural Earthquake Engineering, Geotechnical Earthquake Engineering, Remote Sensing and Seismology are the fields that are being explored and taught.
Do not Panic during an Earthquake
It is but natural to panic during any difficult situation however doing so only worsens the problem. We must thus not panic during an earthquake. We should rather act wisely. Here are a few things you can do to lower the possibility of disaster:
- Come out of your house/ office/ shop and gather in an open place.
- Do not use the elevator. Take the stairs to go down.
- Make sure you are at a safe place as you come out and not somewhere where there is a possibility of falling objects or collapsing buildings.
- Get under a table or bed if you cannot move out.
- Stay calm and don’t indulge in negative talks.
- Help those caught inside or in need if you can.
Earthquake: Precautions to be taken
People living in earthquake-prone areas must stay alert and prepared to handle this natural disaster at all times. Here are certain things that they must keep handy:
- Necessary medicines
- Canned packaged food
- Camp stoves that can be installed outdoors
- Enough drinking water
- Sanitation stock
- Cash/ Debit card/ Credit Card
- Important Certificates/ documents
It is a good idea to prepare a bag that can be carried easily in case of an emergency.
The government must take measures to ensure the destruction caused by this natural calamity is lowered. In the case of a severe earthquake, the government must take measures to help people who lose their houses and other important belongings. The government must be prepared to handle such an emergency situation efficiently so that people do not suffer further.
Essay on Earthquake in India (600 words)
Earthquakes occur when the tectonic plates shift and climb over one another. This leads to mountain building referred to as orogeny which is the cause of severe earthquakes. Thus, the tectonic plates that lie under the surface of Earth are responsible for this natural calamity. Just like many other parts of the world, India has also experienced numerous earthquakes in different areas. While some of these have caused serious destruction others have largely gone unnoticed.
Major Earthquakes in India
Our country has suffered from some major earthquakes in the past that have led to severe damage and immense panic among people. Some of the major earthquakes experienced in India are as follows:
The Hindu Kush Earthquake (26 October 2015): This was a magnitude 7.5 earthquake that caused vast destruction in South Asia. Jammu and Kashmir in India were jolted by this quake and tremors were felt in many other parts of Northern India. With its epicenter in Afghanistan, the quake caused tremendous destruction in the country as well as in its neighboring country Pakistan. Statistics reveal that 399 people lost their lives and as many as 2539 were injured during this earthquake.
The May 2015 Nepal Earthquake: Yet another severe earthquake in Nepal that led to havoc in India too as strong tremors were felt in various parts of our country including Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, and Delhi. With its epicenter in Dolakha and Sindhupal Chowk, Nepal it was a 7.3 magnitude earthquake. Considered to be an aftermath of the April 2015 earthquake, it took away 218 lives and injured more than 3200 people.
The April 2015 Nepal Earthquake: This is said to be one of the major earthquakes that have ever occurred in recent times. It was a 7.8 magnitude earthquake. The epicenter of this earthquake was Gorkha District in Nepal however strong tremors were felt in various parts of India too. It led to the devastation of many buildings and took as many as 9,000 lives. 22,000 people were injured during the event.
Bhuj Earthquake (26 January 2001): This was one of the most devastating natural calamities that ever hit our country. The earthquake with a magnitude of 7.7 lasted for more than 2 minutes and wreaked havoc on the beautiful Indian state of Gujarat. Numerous buildings were devastated as a result of this earthquake. It killed around 20,000 people and injured as many as 167,000 people.
The Latur Earthquake (30 September 1993): The Latur earthquake hit the Indian state of Maharashtra. This 6.2 magnitude earthquake mainly affected the districts of Latur and Osmanabad. It demolished as many as 52 villages in Maharashtra and killed around 10,000 people. As many as 30,000 people were injured during the event.
Uttarkashi Earthquake (2nd October 1991): The earthquake with a 6.8 magnitude hit Gharwal and Uttarkashi in Uttrakhand. Strong tremors were felt in these two regions and various other parts of Uttar Pradesh. It caused mass destruction. Numerous buildings were wrecked during the event. More than 700 people lost their lives and numerous others became homeless.
Earthquake Prone Areas in India
Almost every part of India has been hit by an earthquake at some point or the other. While some areas in the country are highly prone to earthquakes others stand a low chance of being hit by them. Some of the earthquake-prone areas in the country include Srinagar, Mumbai, Delhi, Guwahati, Pune, Kolkata, Chennai, Patna, Kochi, and Thiruvananthapuram. All these regions have felt strong tremors of an earthquake in the past and stand a high chance of experiencing the same in the future as well.
India has seen major destruction due to earthquakes. Many buildings have been damaged and several people have lost their lives due to this natural calamity. We wish and pray to God that such strong tremors don’t occur in the future.