Pollution refers to the presence or introduction of harmful or toxic substances into the environment. In this case environment refers to all natural living and non living things those surround us. Forests, water bodies, air, oceans all constitute our natural environment and, any foreign substance that compromises their purity and longevity is termed as “Pollution”.

As per the recent 2018 EPI (Environmental Performance Index) statistics, India ranks 177 out of 180 countries in terms of air quality and overall environmental health; that’s a steep fall from 141st rank in 2016.

India is followed by the Democratic Republic of Congo on 178th rank, Bangladesh on 179th and Burundi on 180th. Top five nations with the best EPI index are Switzerland, France, Denmark, Malta and Sweden respectively.

Long and Short Paragraphs on Pollution in English

Below we have provided both long and short paragraphs on pollution of varying word lengths. These paragraphs will provide you in depth knowledge of the issues regarding environmental pollution. After going through them you will be able to define pollution and its types, state their causes, effects, solution and also means to prevent them. You can also select a paragraph of your choice, for a speech, competition or debate as per your requirement.

Paragraph on Pollution 1 (100 Words)

Environmental pollution refers to the presence of harmful and poisonous substances into our environment. It is not only limited to air pollution but can also affect water bodies, soil, forests, aquatic life and all the land living species as well. The main factors leading to environmental pollution are human generated.

Since ages we have been interfering with the environment in order to expand our habitat and to make living easy. Humans have invented automobiles, set up factories, cut down forests to make way for roads and cities – all compromising the environmental health. Inadequate waste disposal and its littering have resulted in polluting our oceans and water bodies, rendering them useless and threatening the life of the species which depend on them.


Paragraph on Pollution 2 (150 Words)

Pollution has tremendous adverse affects on environment, resulting in its degradation and also in depletion of living species. It has severe aftereffects like acid rain, global warming, famine, draught and extreme climatic conditions along with other consequences. The most common type of pollution is air pollution. The air we breathe today in metropolis or cities is choked with toxic CO (Carbon Monoxide, CO2 (Carbon di- oxide), N2O (Nitrous Oxide) and CH4 (Methane). Inhalation of these gases not only leads to respiratory ailments in humans but also CO2 is a potent green house gas leading to escalated green house effect and global warming.

Transportation industry causes 25% of the global green house gas emission; subsequently, resulting in green house effect and a raised earth’s average surface temperature. Earth’s average surface temperature is constantly rising and is estimated to rise by around 1.8 by the end of present century. Even the temperature of oceans is on rise, though at a slower rate owing to the ocean’s larger heat absorbing capacity.


Paragraph on Pollution 3 (200 Words)

Though air pollution is the most common type of pollution evident today, it is not the only one. Besides air pollution, there are a number of human induced activities those pollute or natural resources like water bodies and soil. Inadvertent industrialization has led to air as well as water pollution, having adverse affects on environmental health. Industries require a good amount of water to operate and so are mainly set up in proximity to a naturally occurring stream, river or water body.

Also, the industrial waste which includes toxic chemicals like asbestos etc is carried away into our water bodies by using fresh water. It not only pollutes our natural water resources but also renders them harmful to use and results in decline of species, plants and algae.

Another most common factor threatening the health of water resources and soil is – littering. Inadequate mechanism of waste disposal and ignorance results in littering at various places. The most common type of pollutant through littering is plastic. Thin plastic bags of varied dimensions, when not disposed properly; get into our water bodies and soil. Being non degradable they stay there for centuries, polluting them and threatening lives. Species like turtles and fishes are known to have eaten plastic and died.


Paragraph on Pollution 4 (250 Words)

Pollution is the most immediate threat to our environment and is a global concern. It affects the air, water bodies, forests, vegetation, soil, oceans and other natural resources, having long lasting and fatal consequences. Every major pollutant which threatens the environment is produced by human activities. In their desire to progress and expand their boundaries, humans have done considerable damage to the environment.

Natural resources have not only been used incessantly but also polluted, without considering the after affects. We just don’t realize the fact that the natural resources that we pollute today have taken Millions of years to be produced.



Today human induced pollution has become so vast that no corner of the world is isolated from its affects. People are suffering from respiratory diseases, given to the toxic fumes emitted out of factories and automobiles. Places across the globe are witnessing extreme hot and cold climatic conditions as result of global warming. Famine and droughts have become common with depleting natural water resources.

Galactic and polar ice is melting as a result of global warming, consequently resulting in raised ocean level and floods. Also, the rise in oceanic temperature and plastic pollution results in depletion of marine species like – planktons, coral fish, seals, great barrier reef etc.

Deforestation too results in raised air pollution level as forest act as natural air filters – cleaning the air by absorbing harmful gases and emitting oxygen. They act as natural air filters, without them earth would be like nothing else than a large ball of smoke. Unless we realize the severity of the damage that we have done and take preventing measures on war footing; our future generations will live in poor health and despair.


Paragraph on Pollution 5 (300 Words)

The term pollution refers to the introduction of a harmful substance into the environment and the harmful substance is called the pollutant. There are various causes of pollution and almost all of them are human induced.

Causes and Effects of Pollution

There are numerous human activities those cause pollution. Most prominent of the activities causing environmental pollution are fossil fuel consumption, industrialization and littering. As per global estimates, fossil fuels account for 80% of world’s energy annually. Also, the burning of fossil fuel produces 21.3 Billion Tonnes of CO2 every year, which is a potent green house gas. Presence of large amount of CO2 in the environment results in an increased green house effect and hence global warming.

Industries are usually set up in proximity of a water body and use fresh water to wash out industrial waste into the water bodies. Industrial waste may include many harmful substances like gravel, sand, toxic chemicals and metals etc; which are washed into water bodies polluting them. Often the sewage of cities is discharged into rivers and streams, which too results in their pollution and deplete the marine life.

Littering is also responsible for a good amount of environmental pollution and ecological imbalance. Inefficient waste collection and disposal has resulted in large heaps of plastic and toxic wastes in and around the cities. This non bio degradable waste gets into our water bodies, polluting them and threatening marine life.


Strict environmental policies and larger public awareness are the keys to preventing further environmental damage. Policies mandating the industries to take necessary steps towards reducing their carbon footprint are a must. Moreover, any violation should be dealt with strictly imposing hefty fines and shut down. Efficient waste collection and disposal mechanism is also required to reduce prevent harmful waste from reaching our water bodies and soil.


Paragraph on Pollution 6 (350 Words)

Today pollution has become a global threat and also an immediate one, threatening the environment and ecological balance.

Types of Pollution and Causes

Below we will go through various types of pollution and its causes. Pollution could be broadly classified into the following categories –

Air Pollution

Air Pollution refers to the presence of harmful and poisonous gases present in the environment. Fossil fuel consumption emanating toxic gases like Carbon monoxide, Carbon dioxide etc is the prime factor contributing to air pollution.

Noise Pollution

Noise pollution also called sound pollution refers to the presence of unwanted sound in the environment which has harmful effects on the activities of humans and animals. Some of the prime contributors of noise pollution are transportation vehicles, construction works, loud music etc.

Soil Pollution

Soil pollution is caused by the introduction of human made chemicals and pollutants into the soil, making it toxic and reducing yield. The main causes of soil pollution are use of pesticides by agriculture industry, industrial waste disposal, littering and improper waste disposal.

Light Pollution

Light Pollution is also called photo pollution and refers to the presence of human made light in the environment during night. The main cause of light pollution is excessive and non essential lighting. Light pollution disrupts with the environment and reduces its beauty. Some bird species are known to get confused by excessive lighting.

Thermal Pollution

Thermal Pollution refers to a sudden change in ambient water temperature. One of the prime causes of thermal pollution is the use of water as coolant by power plants and industries. The water used as coolant gets warm and when it is returned to natural environment, it results in sudden temperature changes, decreasing oxygen content and affecting ecosystem.

Water Pollution

Water pollution refers to the contamination of water bodies by human activities. Prime causes leading to water pollution are industrial waste disposal, sewage disposal and littering. Industrial waste containing harmful and toxic chemicals is poured into water bodies, resulting in their pollution. Also, littering in and around water bodies results in their pollution and makes the water hazardous to use.

Radioactive Pollution

Radioactive Pollution refers to the presence of radioactive substances in the environment. Such radioactive substances have hazardous effects on human health and environment. The factors leading to radioactive pollution are inefficient nuclear waste handling, nuclear explosion and nuclear accidents.


Paragraph on Pollution 7 (400 Words)

Pollution refers to the introduction of toxic substances into the environment. Majority of pollutants are produced by human activities; though, some of the natural causes are also responsible for environmental pollution.

Natural Causes of Pollution

Natural air and water pollution is caused by natural events, either temporary or continuous. The pollution brought by the natural causes is negligible as compared to human generated causes. Some natural causes of air pollution are volcanic eruptions and fog. Some isolated areas may have the seepage of some toxic gases like Radon or CO2 etc leading to air pollution.

Natural water pollution is mainly caused due to surface run off, having insoluble and impure substances and also from the soil in proximity having naturally occurring toxic substances.

Effects of Pollution on Human Beings

Pollution is a serious threat concerning the health of not only humans but also of plants, birds, animals and marine species. Studies reveal that pollution considerably reduces the life expectancy of an individual. 90% of people worldwide are breathing polluted air and pollution claims Millions of lives globally. In India alone, an estimated 7 lakh people die every year due to various pollution generated ailments. Not to mention the famine and draughts as results of pollution; subsequently, resulting in large migrations of humans and animals.

What if Pollution Goes Unchecked

If pollution continued at the same rate as of today, the day is not far, when the sky will become foggier and breathing difficult due to scarcity of oxygen. Incessant water pollution will lead to water scarcity, famine, drought and ecological imbalance. All the living species and resources will gradually perish leaving earth as a barren and lifeless ball of mud and smoke.

Best Ways to Control Pollution

Some of the best ways of controlling pollution are – making eco friendly transportation choice, efficient waste collection and disposal, non use of plastic products, controlled human population, forest plantation and a global policy governing the establishment of industries and regulating their carbon foot print. Most important of it all – the awareness of general public needs to be raised on issue concerning pollution.

People should acknowledge the fact that, finding a solution to pollution and saving life of the planet and its entire living species, ultimately rests with humans. Also, it would be a mistake not to work on it together. Pollution at one place threatens the life at some distant place; therefore, pollution should be dealt with globally, together.



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