Pollution and its Effects Essay

Pollution is the existence of contaminants in the environment that cause adverse changes in the environment. It can take the form of heat, light or noise. It can occur naturally or can be caused due to human activities.

Industrial revolution is the major cause of pollution in the environment. The pollutants caused due to human activities such as construction, burning of coal and wood, agriculture, mining and warfare contribute largely to pollution.

Long and Short Essay on Pollution and Its Effects in English

Here are essay on Pollution and its Effects of varying lengths to help you with the topic in your exam. You can select any Pollution and its Effects essay as per your need:

Essay on Pollution and Its Effects on the Ecosystem – Essay 1 (200 words)

Pollution is the introduction of harmful and toxic chemical substances in the natural environment. It can be naturally occurring contaminants or foreign substances. With industrialization and growth in population there has been increase in pollution in the atmosphere. The air, water and soil have been severely polluted by human activities. Our ecosystem is affected by pollution in number of ways.

Effects of Pollution on Ecosystem

Ecosystem is the natural system made of diverse species in its physical environment. The natural ecosystem is highly diverse and complex in nature. The toxic chemicals in the atmosphere spread widely throughout the ecosystem. It affects the soil, plants and other organisms, both directly and indirectly.

Ozone hinders the process of photosynthesis in plant species. Ozone gets dissolved in plants and reacts with chemicals that cause number of problems. The process of photosynthesis slows down which results in slower plant growth. The primary ecosystem function such as plant growth and biogeochemical cycling is affected by contaminants in the natural environment which affects the ecosystem services.

Ecosystem refers to the interaction between various organisms, plants, animals, fungi and bacteria. They form the entire food web where each depends on the one below it in the food chain. When the ecosystem gets polluted the natural balance in the ecosystem gets disrupted which effects different organisms in different ways. The pollutants like oil, nitrogen, detergents and phosphate can have negative impact on ecosystem especially if the water gets polluted. It can damage the ecological balance by adversely affecting the marine life. Thus, pollution hinders the natural cycle of ecosystem.


Essay On Pollution And Its Effects – Essay 2 (300 words)


The presence of that substance in the environment which has harmful and toxic effect on it is called pollution. Environmental pollution can be caused by natural events such as volcanoes and forest fires but it largely occurs due to the pollutants caused by human activities. With growth in population and rapid spread of industrialization pollution has become a global issue. The awareness for the need to protect environment from pollution has developed among the people.


Effects of Pollution:

  • The greenhouse gas emission in the atmosphere increases the temperature of the earth. The climate change causes catastrophic change in weather.
  • The harmful gases in the atmosphere cause irritation in the throat and eyes, asthma as well as other respiratory problems and diseases such as lung cancer. Increased level of radiation increases the risk of skin cancer. It can also have adverse effects on cardiovascular system.
  • Use of fertilizers such as insecticides and pesticides reduce the soil fertility that results in reduction of crop production. This may result in famine and malnutrition.
  • Polluted water affects the sea organisms and aquatic life. The contaminated water when consumed by humans causes various diseases such as typhoid, cholera, and jaundice.
  • The excessive exposure to noise pollution can result in impaired hearing or cause deafness in human beings. It might also result in high blood pressure and coronary diseases.
  • Wild life is also adversely affected due to air and noise pollution. Toxic soils and water channels can kill several plants and animals. It may cause neurological damage, cancer and failure to reproduce in animals.


Pollution has several adverse effects on animals, plants, environment, ecosystem and human beings. It is a global issue and people are now being more aware of the need to prevent this problem. It is vital to control pollution to prevent its adverse effects on our environment and life in general.


Essay On Pollution And Its Effects On Environment – Essay 3 (400 words)


Pollution is the presence of contaminants in natural environment that adversely affect all living things. The components of pollution can be either naturally occurring components or foreign substances. The major forms of pollution include; air pollution, noise pollution, water pollution, plastic pollution, soil contamination, thermal pollution and light pollution.


Effects of Pollution on Environment

Environment includes all the living and non-living components. Plants, animals and other living creatures are important part of environment but environment also includes, air, water and land. Pollution in the environment affects it negatively. Given below are the adverse effects of pollution on environment:

  • Air pollution: Pollution pollutes the air that we breathe. It may cause harm to the living organisms such as animals, plants and other living organisms that are important part of our environment. It also damages our natural environment and degrades the quality of the air. The pollutants can occur naturally or can be manmade.
  • Ocean acidification: Emission of carbon dioxide causes ocean acidification. It is the decrease in the pH of the earth oceans by increase in the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere getting dissolved in the oceans.
  • Global warming: The emission of greenhouse gasses in the environment leads to Global warming which affects the ecosystem significantly.
  • Soil contamination: The quality of soil can degrade and it may become infertile and inappropriate for plants. This also affects the organisms in the natural food cycle. Nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide can cause acid rains which reduce the pH value of soil and can have harmful effects on plants, aquatic animals and infrastructure.
  • Decrease in biodiversity: Invasive species can surpass native species and can decrease biodiversity.
  • Plants: Smog and haze can lessen the amount of sunlight received by plants to carry out the process of photosynthesis.
  • Water: Pollution of water channels can reduce the oxygen levels and the diversity of species.
  • Biological magnification: It is the increase in concentration of toxins that may pass through tropic levels. It refers to the build-up of toxins in the food web. Predators accumulate more toxins than prey in the food chain.


Thus, pollution in the environment contaminates and reduces the quality of air water and land. Humans, animals, plants and other living organisms are a vital part of environment that gets effected due to pollution. Pollution is a global issue and needs serious attention. Various measures need to be taken to prevent pollution in the environment.


Essay On Pollution And Its Effects Human Life – Essay 4 (500 words)


Pollution is the presence of toxic substances in the natural environment that cause adverse effects. It can take the form of energy such as heat, light or noise. The chief forms of pollution include noise pollution, light pollution, air pollution, soil contamination, radioactive contamination, water pollution and thermal pollution. Every living species shares the natural resources on this planet. What happens in the environment affects all the living species and the planet as a whole. Pollution has several negative effects on human life.

Effects of Pollution on Human Life

The greenhouse gas emission in the atmosphere causes rise in the temperature of earth that adversely affects the human life. Humans are chiefly responsible for creating pollution in the atmosphere. While human activities are a major cause of pollution in the atmosphere, pollution in the atmosphere has direct impact on them. Let us have a look at the effects of pollution on human life in detail below:

  • The poor quality of air can kill many organisms including human beings. Pollution can cause several diseases like throat inflammation, asthma, congestion, cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases. It damages the immune system, reproductive system and the endocrine system of humans. Older people are more vulnerable to diseases caused by air pollution. Those with lung and heart disorder are at further risk.
  • The toxic chemicals in the air settle in to water and plant resources and the poison travels up the food web.
  • Drinking contaminated water may cause several ailments and digestive problems in humans. The ailments such as typhoid and amoebiasis are caused by drinking polluted water.
  • Contamination of drinking water is majorly responsible for causing deaths in developing countries. It is estimated that approximately 14,000 deaths are caused per day due to water pollution.
  • Water pollution adversely affects marine life which is one of the chief sources of food for humans.
  • Chemical and radioactive substances in air can cause chronic diseases such as cancer and may also cause birth defects.
  • Soil pollution, deforestation and improper waste disposal put plant and animal life in danger. Contaminated soil by chemicals becomes infertile and inappropriate for crops and other plant life. This hinders the production of food and can lead to malnourishment. Toxic soil may produce contaminated food and may adversely affect the health of one who consumes it.
  • Noise pollution can damage physiological and psychological health of humans. It can cause disturbance in many day to day activities of humans such as sleeping, studying, meditation, etc. Excessive exposure to noise pollution can lead to hearing problem, permanent hear loss, hypertension, stress, high blood pressure and cardiovascular effects. Children and old age people are more prone to such problems. It may also interfere with learning, concentration and behaviour of children.


We live in the ecosystem where everything is interrelated. We have severely polluted the environment since decades and are facing its repercussions now. We are now very well aware of the adverse effects of pollution. It is vital to make efforts towards green and clean environment to bring positive changes.


Essay on Pollution and Its Effects on Environment, Human Life, Animal Life – Essay 5 (600 Words)


Pollution occurs when the pollutants contaminate the natural environment that affects life on earth adversely. With urbanization and development in our lives pollution has reached its heights giving rise to global warming. Due to global warming human beings, animals and our environment are adversely affected. Environment, humans as well as animals are severely affected by pollution. Here is a look at the adverse effects of pollution:

Effects of Pollution on Human’s Life

  • Air pollution can cause respiratory diseases, increased risk of heart attack, asthma, and lung complications. It can also worsen the existing diseases.
  • Smog can damage the lungs and cause irritation in throat and eyes. People who already suffer from asthma are prone to have asthma attacks.
  • Dioxins present in the air can damage the liver, and also harm the nervous, immune and endocrine system and reproductive function in humans.
  • The toxic components from traffic and wildfire such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons or PAHs in huge amounts can cause lung and eye irritation, liver issues and cancer.
  • Greenhouse gas emission in the atmosphere leads to warmer temperatures. Climate change leads to several issues like extreme weather, heat-related deaths, rising sea levels, acid rains and increasing number of diseases.
  • Noise pollution can damage the physical and mental health. Exposure to excessive noise pollution can cause stress, hypertension, sleep disturbance, rise in blood pressure, hear-loss and other adverse effects.

Effects of Pollution on Animal’s Life

  • Pollution causes threat to the habitat of animals and death in some events. There are several species that have also been pushed to extinction. Animals are affected by both direct and indirect pollution.
  • Oil spills affect marine life instantly causing large number of deaths. It causes immediate death of animals due to toxicity of oil, besides deaths caused, there are several other animals affected by oil spills. The oil pollutes marine and plant life which impacts animal life in number of ways such as decreased or impaired reproduction, neurological damage, and vulnerability to disease are common effects for long period even after the oil spills have been cleaned.
  • Water is polluted due to acid rain as the rain water drains towards lakes, ponds, streams and other water channels causing death of fish population. The decrease in fish population affects other wildlife that depends on fish for food.
  • Nutrient pollution leads to the dead zone areas in water channels with very little or no oxygen where it becomes difficult for marine life to survive.
  • Noise pollution can have severe effect on wildlife increasing the risk of death by disrupting the balance in predator or prey detection and disturbing the sound in communication. Over exposure to excessive sound can lead to hearing issues or permanent hear loss. It can also lead to change of usual habitat.

Effects of Pollution on Environment:

  • The toxic pollutants that enter in environment are consumed by the organisms through food and water or directly absorption through their skin. These toxins pass to the animals higher in the food chain and so on. Top predators are more vulnerable to experience various diseases, genetic mutations, birth defects, etc.
  • Ocean acidification is caused as the greenhouse gas carbon dioxide in the air gets dissolved in water resulting in the decrease of pH of the earth’s oceans.
  • Acid rains caused by pollution damage the forests, water channels and lands.
  • The population and diversity of birds and animals has shown decline or change of habitat to excessive noise pollution. Noise pollution also disrupts the communication and mating of certain species.
  • Sounds produced by military sonar, shipping traffic create rise in levels of underwater sound that disrupts the communication, hunting and mating of the marine species.


Hence, pollution has several adverse effects on the environment, human and animal life. Everything on earth is interrelated and depends on each other for effective functioning. As humans we need to stop harming nature and take steps towards prevention of pollution.



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