Water pollution like all other kinds of natural element pollution is linked to the word contamination. It can be defined as the presence of certain unwanted and harmful elements in water in an amount which is harmful for living beings and property. These chemicals added to water in inappropriate quantity can prove lethal if not curbed. This contamination leads to the deterioration in the quality of water and hence affects the quality of living.

You will find below a number of short and long paragraphs on Water Pollution. We hope these Water Pollution paragraphs will help students in completing their school assignments. These will also help children to write and read out paragraphs with simple words and small sentences. Students can select any paragraph on Water Pollution according to their particular requirement.

Long and Short Paragraphs on Water Pollution

Water Pollution Paragraph 1 (100 words)

Water pollution comes into existence when the concentration of certain deadly chemicals exceeds the safety limit and the water becomes capable of causing intense harm to life and property. Water pollution may occur when waste water is discharged into clean water bodies without undergoing proper treatment to nullify the effects of lethal chemicals. At times people consume this water and it leads to various water- borne diseases such as typhoid and cholera. Apart from humans, contaminated water greatly affects aquatic life. We live in an era of science which is capable of eradicating this growing pollution if led in a proper and controlled manner.


Water Pollution Paragraph 2 (150 words)

Today, we live in times of industrial revolution. This revolution comes with its own downsides, one of them being the generation of various kinds of wastes which pollute the basic elements of environment that are important for our survival. They mainly lead to air, water and land pollution.

Water pollution can be categorised by the nature of its source.

  1. Point Source
  2. Non-Point Source

Point Source – A point source of pollution is that whose origin can be traced back by the path it follows. For instance, an industry discharging water pollutants can be traced by the pipeline which carries that waste. Thus, pipe is a point source of pollution.

Non- Point Source – Non-point source refers to the pollution that does not originate from a particular point. The surface runoff is a kind of non-point source as the water flows through various places such as roads, agricultural fields, etc so the source of pollution cannot be determined in this case.

Hence, these are the ways in which the origination of water pollution can be categorised. This helps in the development of technology to curb water pollution to some extent.


Water Pollution Paragraph 3 (200 words)

Water pollution refers to the contamination of water by the addition of certain harmful substances in a quantity which is way beyond the safety standards. This contamination of water leads to various problems for human beings, aquatic life and flora and fauna of the affected area.

Causes of Water Pollution

There are various causes of increase in water pollution with industrialization and increasing population being the major one. With the increase in population around the world, the demand for various industrial products has been stimulated which has led to the increase in industrial waste. Many such industries discharge the waste into nearby water bodies without proper treatment which leads to the addition of harmful chemicals in the water body.

Modern methods of agriculture are also a leading cause because with the increase in use of chemical infused pesticides and germicides the soil is tampered and the water flowing through it gets mixed with these chemicals and loses its purity. These agricultural pesticides are a leading cause of eutrophication of freshwater lakes.

Other causes of water pollution includes acid rain, improper sewage treatment, discharging of hot water without cooling by thermal power plants, religious rituals such as disposing corpses into the rivers and various other urban and rural practices. Hence, these are the root causes of increasing water pollution. In order to eradicate the contamination of water these issues have be to be tackled with the help of advanced technology and scientific principles.


Water Pollution Paragraph 4 (250 words)

An alarmingly large part of the surface of the earth is covered by water which means if not controlled and taken care of correctly it has the potential of severely affecting life and property. As we know, water pollution involves the addition of certain chemical and biological substances in a concentration which is harmful for living beings and the overall environment. Water pollutants are categorized based on their type.


Types of Water Pollutants

There are three kinds of water pollutants namely biological, radiological and chemical. Here is a brief look at each of these:

  • Biological Pollutants – This category includes pollutants such as micro-organisms, bacteria, fungi and other bio organisms which in higher concentration can prove lethal. These are capable of spreading water borne diseases in humans and livestock.
  • Radioactive Pollutants – The presence of radioactive elements in water is termed as radioactive contaminants. This radioactive waste is capable of more harmful consequences such as genetic disorders in a person who accidentally consumes this water.
  • Chemical Pollutants – These pollutants may be organic or inorganic and are generally a result of industrial discharge. These include heavy metals such as lead and pesticides and herbicides from agricultural fields.

Sources of Water Pollution

Water pollution generally occurs as a result of waste discharged by industries, residential areas and mining activities.

The biological waste such as bacteria and fungi get mixed with water from domestic sewage discharge. A large part of water pollutants come from giant industries which do not treat the wastewater whereas a major part of nutrient waste comes from agricultural fields which use pesticides in excess amounts.


So, with the knowledge of origin of the water pollutants, we can develop methods to curb it and eventually stop water borne diseases and save marine life.


Water Pollution Paragraph 5 (300 words)

Water is an integral part of our life. It is essential for the survival of all the species on earth. It helps in maintaining ecological balance of our planet. All of our daily activities need water such as bathing, cooking, drinking, etc. And so to ensure smooth functioning of our daily lives, availability of clean water is essential. When many biological, radioactive and chemical pollutants enter the water it makes the water unfit for many purposes.

Consequences of Water Pollution

As the pollutants enter the water, they make it capable of inducing diseases, harming aquatic and human life, disturbing food chains, etc. All of these consequences collectively will directly lead to the disruption of life on earth as all the components of environment including us are dependent on each other.

The extent of damage from the consumption of polluted water depends upon the composition of that water and the effects can range from minor stomach ache to genetic disorders and other carcinogenic effects.

Eutrophication is a fairly dangerous consequence of using nitrogen and phosphorus pumped pesticides in the agricultural fields. This leads to algal blooms which further induce the deterioration of dissolved oxygen leading to death of aquatic animals and vegetation.

The other contaminants include heavy metals and chemicals which have exponentially increased in the past few decades due to the increase in industrialization and they lead to the increase in temperature and alkalinity of the water in which they are discharged and hence harm the aquatic life of that particular water body.


So, the above stated are various consequences of water pollution. The extent and intensity of the harm caused by these pollutants largely depends upon their concentration in a particular sample. This issue needs rapt attention from the governmental authorities, the citizens and the technical minds capable of eradicating the consequences to some extent.


Water Pollution Paragraph 6 (350 words)

Water pollution is the contamination of water by the addition of harmful chemical, biological and radioactive substances in concentrations beyond the safety limit. It has become an important issue to address so as to protect human beings from lethal diseases and maintain ecological balance in the environment along with the survival of aquatic life.

Water Quality Standards

The EPA (Environment Protection Agency) has established certain definite standards for determining the quality of drinking water. Some of these are mere guidelines which are advised to follow and many others have a legal basis, so people are obliged to follow them. These standards ensure that the water we drink is free from harmful chemicals, biological entities and other wastes. These laws or guidelines decide what amount of elements are harmful if present in water such as chlorides, fluorides, total dissolved solids, E. Coli bacteria, etc. Different parameters apply to water for different purposes such as drinking, irrigation, recreation, etc.

The prime objective of the formation of these laws is to maintain the biological, chemical and physical integrity of water. This enactment keeps a check on the institutions that refuse to follow certain set norms for the enhancement of the quality of water.

Water Treatment Methods

Water treatment is the process of eliminating radiological, chemical and biological contaminants from water and making it fit for human use.

The various methods used for the purification of water for domestic uses are desalination, reverse-osmosis, zeolite method, ion-exchange method and de-chlorination among others. Majority of water treatment methods use the principles of chemistry in working.

The treatment of industrial wastewater involves different technique than that employed for domestic. The methods used are brine treatment, API separators (used in separation of oil and water), trickling, filter process, etc.


Hence, due to increasing water pollution and the harms it posed to life and property, standards were established to ensure purity and using advanced scientific principles many methods of treatment were devised which have been proved useful for tackling the growing problem of pollution. We as a citizen have to be careful and give our contribution in valuing this natural resource before it’s too late.


Water Pollution Paragraph 7 (400 words)

As the issue of water contamination and pollution has been on rise since the last decade. The governmental bodies have taken the matter to their hands and devised laws and enactments in the favour of this issue. Prominent environmentalists are discussing about this issue and giving solutions for the protection of this resource. Even the enlightened individuals are working at their levels to give their own contribution to this noble cause.

Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act, 1974

The Water Prevention and Control of Pollution Act was established in 1974 for ensuring prevention of water pollution. This act ensures punishment to the owner of point water pollution sources and also ensures that the concerned person faces legal questioning. It is specially designed for monitoring wastewater discharges into water bodies and for formulating safety water standards used for various purposes.

Movements against Water Pollution in India

Many a times in the history of India, large numbers of concerned individuals have gathered and demonstrated against various environmental issues. One such effort was the Narmada Bachao Andolan initiated in 1985. This movement was started to oppose the dislocation of people living at the place where the dam was supposed to be constructed. This was followed by protesting against the authorities for causing large ecological damage with this project. The major leaders of this movement were Megha Patkar and Baba Amte.

There were arguments in the favour of the construction of the dam which included providing water for irrigation to many areas of Gujarat and to generate electricity.

Finally, the court approved the construction of the dam with a reduced height than the proposed one and the dam was inaugurated by our Prime Minister, Narendra Modi.


We have came a long way from identifying and classifying the origin and types of water pollutants and pollution to developing techniques for the treatment of waste water and eradicating water borne diseases. With the help of environmentalists and more importantly the enlightened citizens of the country, people are now more aware and cautious of the effects and causes of various anthropogenic and natural activities on the environmental elements and on humans.

This enlightenment in the citizens has led the government to take strong actions to curb these harmful activities. The laws and enactments passed have a promising aura of change in the coming years. Finally, we as individuals have to make sure that these values and knowledge is passed onto the coming generations so that they can protect themselves and the environment for their own good.



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