Water pollution is a major cause of concern these days and our government is taking conscientious efforts to preserve our water bodies and save them from further degradation. In fact, several state-of-the-art techniques are adopted in order to distill the water and get it in its crystal, clear form. This is not easy though, as it requires heavy investment and great manpower. The best and permanent solution would be to enlighten the masses and prevent the agents that cause water pollution.
Long and Short Speech on Water Pollution
Respected Principal, Vice Principal, Teachers and My Dear Friends – Warm Greetings to all of you!
I – Aashna Sharma from Class – XII (C) – welcome everyone to our school hall. I hope this morning brings with it lots of positivity and good vibes for you all. I stand here to deliver an important speech on Water Pollution.
As we all know that water is what gives us life and no life would be imaginable on earth without it. This is the reason why it is said that every single drop of water matters. We use water every single day in almost all our household chores and for other commercial purposes as well. We need water for drinking, washing, cooking, fishing, irrigation, etc.
However, we still waste this important resource and do not make wise use of it. Not only do we use water recklessly and misuse it, but they also cause water pollution. Garbage, industrial waste and other remnants of used articles are being dumped in oceans and rivers resulting in the contamination of water. Other toxic chemicals that run out of factories and pesticides used during agricultural practices also get discharged in water; thereby causing further pollution in water.
This doesn’t stop here; the poor system of water supply and contact of the water supply line with sewage further degrade the quality of water and make it unfit for drinking. Contaminated water poses a serious threat to the existence of human life, animals, and fish. The poor and underdeveloped countries are in fact facing huge problems of water scarcity and water pollution as there is no suitable waste disposal system and poor water supply and treatment system.
They dump garbage and dispose of waste products straight into the lakes and rivers. Nearly one-third of the population in the world does not have a resort to safe drinking water. It, therefore, gives rise to such water-borne diseases as diarrhea. This disease is quite rampant in underdeveloped countries or poor countries where the ratio of poor people is significantly high.
Developed countries seldom suffer from the problem of water pollution. Water pollution in such countries is caused mainly due to the unwarranted use of pesticides in order to protect the agricultural harvest. The problem of water pollution in such countries does not arise out of the poor garbage management system like that of the underdeveloped countries where the disposal and water treatment cost is usually unaffordable.
But whether it’s the developed countries or the underdeveloped ones – every nation is grappling with the situation of water crisis more or less. Strict measures should be implemented where dumping of garbage or any other toxic waste is prohibited. In addition to this, the government should adopt water conservation techniques and these techniques should be imparted to people so that misuse of water can be avoided. This is all from my side!
Now may I invite on stage our Social Science Teacher to say a few words in this regard and share her knowledge with us!
Good Morning Dear Society Members and Children – Welcome to our social club!
As you all know that our society is facing a serious water crisis, it, therefore, calls for an immediate solution. We all will have to collectively work to be able to combat the situation in this hot climate. My other intention behind calling everyone here, especially children are to make them realize how important water is for our survival and we should strictly avoid its misuse.
It won’t be an exaggeration to say that water is undoubtedly the “Elixir of Life”. Isn’t it? The word ‘elixir’ means a magic liquid, which is believed to cure illness or give people immortal youth. Life originated and grew in water and life is simply unimaginable without it. Water has a neutral pH value and is considered a perfect triological solvent. Water is colorless, tasteless and odorless in its pure form.
Water pollution is caused due to the contamination, i.e. discharge of such pollutants as domestic, industrial, chemical, biological, physical and so on. Water pollution involves a physical or chemical change in its property that has an adverse effect on the health of human beings, including other organisms. Water pollution in the present times has become a cause of global concern. The level of pollution differs from one country to the other and also one region to the other. In developing countries, a number of epidemics are connected with contaminated water.
Based on the type or source of contaminant, water pollution can be of several types, such as:
- Bacterial Pollution
- Nutrient Pollution
- Pesticide Pollution
- Metallic Pollution
- Thermal Pollution
- Viral Pollution
- Radioactive Pollution
- Petrochemical Pollution
The water gets polluted either through man-made activities or natural causes.
I am sure children, you must have studied all this in your course work and here I’m iterating the same facts. Now let’s understand some of the man-made or natural causes of water pollution:
- Domestic Waste and Sewage Run-Off
Domestic waste usually contains organic wastes like food leftovers, domestic garbage, cloth, paper, toiletries and run off of human excreta because of bathing, household cleaning, food processing, and laundering. Did you know that nearly 75 percent of water pollution is caused due to domestic and sewage wastes? Since domestic sewage usually contains organic wastes, when these are discharged in water bodies, they absorb a lot of oxygen and the amount of oxygen that goes into it is defined as B.O.D., i.e. Biological Oxygen Demand.
Pesticides are synthetic compounds required for pest control. The excess of the agricultural fields, when discharged in water, leads to pesticide pollution of various water bodies, such as streams, rivers, and lakes. There are a few industrial pesticides that also enter inland waters. These pesticides have an adverse effect on a wide range of aquatic organisms, which include fishes and insects.
Many such chemical compounds are however very much stable. A few of them disintegrate partially in order to form several toxic compounds. Pesticides that are used to kill harmful insects are either organic phosphorus compounds (Malathion) or chlorinated hydrocarbons (Endrin, DDT, and aldrin). These are stable and lead to a buildup in the tissues of aquatic chemicals. Further accumulation takes place in animals when the higher we go in trophic levels.
- Industrial Effluents and Discharge
Industries are also responsible for producing several organic and inorganic wastes, which eventually penetrate into the water bodies and pollute it. When the aquatic environment becomes toxic, it not only affects the population of the fish but also forms a buildup at the bottom of these water bodies and enters into the bodies of the water animals. Resistant objects, such as metals, cans, tires, plastic wares and polythene further accumulate in water bodies and pollute them.
Hence, there are several causes of water pollution which when are recognized and put under constant checks can help us overcome the problem of water pollution.
I would like to end my speech here and continue with it in our next meeting. Meanwhile, let’s discuss what measures we can take to cope with the present situation.
Here I rest my speech, thank you!
I – Sukant Sharma – warmly welcome all the members of our ABC Society. As you all know this is Day 2 of our speech giving ceremony and our Save Water Campaign is successfully making its mark. People are becoming more and more aware and are trying to cut down on the usage of water so that this precious resource could be saved as much as possible. To my surprise, in fact, a greater level of maturity is being observed in our children who are not wasting water and are using it very wisely.
However, we not only will have to combat the situation of the water crisis but also need to control pollution of water. As I was discussing in my last speech the causes of water pollution, I would like to continue with the same and here are some of the remaining water-polluting agents:
- Fertilizers and Detergent
The chemical fertilizers are usually compounds of nitrogen, phosphates, and potash. These are non-biodegradable in nature and when come in contact with water bodies due to surface sun off pose a great threat to aquatic life.
The washing articles are usually known as detergents. They are made up of complex phosphates, which disintegrate into phosphates and other chemicals. The phosphates when absorbed by aquatic plants naturally increase the concentration of phosphorus in sewage effluents. Fishes and invertebrates become greatly affected by detergents.
- Thermal Pollution
Water is utilized during various industrial processes for cooling and this resultant warmed water is often being discharged into lakes and streams. Oil or coal-based generators and atomic energy plants release the humongous amount of waste heat which is carried away in the form of hot water and lead to thermal pollution.
- Toxic Metals
Metallurgical laboratories and mining operations are responsible for the discharge of several heavy metals like copper, zinc, mercury, lead, chromium, arsenic, etc. Mercuric compounds present in water are transformed into dimethyl and monomethyl mercury with the help of methane which is released from anaerobic breakdown of organic wastes.
Both are non-degradable and highly toxic that can cause chromosomal damage and harmful effect on the kidney, liver, and gills of the fishes. Toxic metals that cause air pollution, like Nickel, Cadmium, and Lead may also penetrate deep down in water bodies and affect the lives of aquatic animals.
- Suspended Solids
These are water pollutants in a physical form. For instance, silt is fine sediment that goes into the rivers in many ways along with the surface runoff. Silt augments the turbidity of the water, which harms the yielding efficiency of the aquatic environment and the growth of the aquatic animals.
- Biochemical Oxygen Demand (B.O.D.)
The organic wastes are a part of water bodies that utilize dissolved oxygen. BOD means the amount of oxygen required for biochemical oxidation by microorganisms in a unit volume of water. The oxygen demand is directly connected with the increased input of organic wastes. So BOD is a unit to measure oxygen for the biochemical degradation of organic elements present in water. The aerobic decomposers perform the task. The value of BOD is directly connected with the sum total of oxidized organic matter. BOD, therefore, is used as a measurement to assess the level of water pollution.
So these five are other factors contributing to water pollution and we should have the requisite knowledge of these factors to be able to keep them under control. With this, I rest my speech.
Good Afternoon Everyone – How you all are doing?
I hope this day finds you in the best of spirit!
I – Rajat Kapoor, one of the committee members of Save Water, Save Earth Foundation – welcome you all to the 11th annual meeting. It is good to see you all after a long time; I have been out of the country for some official reasons and hence couldn’t attend the preceding two meetings.
Now that I am here in my own country and to my dismay, I have come across a serious situation of the water crisis. On top of this, I observe people misusing this precious resource. This should be strictly prohibited by our government and people have seen wasting water should be heavily fined. In fact, the government should remain agile about such human agencies that cause water pollution and contaminate the quality of water. Water pollution is one of the alarming issues in the present times that the countries in the world are grappling with.
Water Pollution could be termed as the discharge of toxic substances into our water bodies - lakes, estuaries, rivers, streams, and oceans to the point where the elements interfere with the favorable usage of water or with the natural working of ecosystems. Besides the discharge of substances, such as microorganisms or chemicals, water pollution also consists of the release of energy in the form of heat, radioactivity into water bodies.
Water bodies get polluted by a wide range of substances, such as
- Plant nutrients;
- Radioactive Substances;
- Pathogenic Microorganisms;
- Petroleum (oil);
- Sediments putrescible organic waste;
- Toxic chemicals
It’s time when some preventive measures need to be taken through suitable infrastructure as well as management plans. The infrastructure consists of wastewater treatment plans. Industrial wastewater treatment and sewage treatment plants are often required to preserve water channels from untreated wastewater. If we happen to control the process of erosion from construction sites and adopt agricultural wastewater treatment, it can help prevent water pollution.
Nature-based solutions can also help overcome water pollution. It is important to keep a check on the urban runoff, which reduces the quantity and speed of flow. There are excellent management practices adopted for water pollution which consist of such approaches as reducing the water quantity and improving the quality of water.
So if a problem is there; a solution is also definitely there. It’s just that we need to identify the problem, assess the nature of the problem, its source and origin and then work upon it accordingly.
This is all from my side; with this, I rest my speech. Thank You!